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Showing posts from April, 2012

Questions & Answers #4

1. Mahid asked: I'm a student of BBA from Dhaka City College. I want to establish my career as quality controller in garment Industry but I have no idea how to do that. So I badly need a QC or QA instruction manual book which is very helpful to me. How can I get this book free?
Answer: You can get buyer's quality manual for free. These quality manuals are generally available with apparel buying houses and garment manufacturing unit. Secondly, you can read free on Google books. But to read good books on quality you have to purchase few books that you can be purchased from online book stores: I have added two valuable books on quality related to garment industry. You can refer these books.

Operations, Seams and Sewing Machines Database for Basic Products now on the Web

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Updated on Feb. 25, 2016:


I always feel that I should have knowledge about all sewing machines need to make garments covering all products. But it is not easy to keep in mind when I am not sewing machines supplier or distributor and even I am not making all types of garment in my factory. What should I do if somebody asked me for machines list of a basic products? Now I got one.

As an engineer (IE) you may be good at garment constructions, seams to be used for various operations and machinery needed to make a garment. On the other hand, if you are asked for details about seams, operations and machines requirement for products that you did not make before, you may be try to contact to your friends or machine suppliers for information. I am sure you will have difficulty to manage it quickly.

Questions & Answers #3

In this part of Question & Answers, I have posted questions  asked on garment manufacturing cost and clarify various term used in manufacturing cost.

Following questions were asked by Madhaiyan. OCS Team replied on his questions point by point. He wrote: 'Thanks for updating practical issues and I have gone through your entire article related to costing. I am very much interest to study about garment costing method. I have few doubts and thanks to clear the same.'

1. For product costing you have taken only Cutting & sewing SAM only. Why you did not add the finishing SAM while doing the product costing. If it is not necessary then where we have to add for total product cost.

OCS Team: Article topic says ‘Garment CM cost Estimation’ not manufacturing cost estimation. That’s why I did not include Finishing SAM and its cost. If you want to calculate garment CMT (Cut, Make and Trim) cost then you must add finishing cost.

2. Also for cost of the labour per minute you have con…

Design and Development of Anti-molestation Jacket – An innovative, commercially viable and best research work done by NIFT students

Techno Summit, an award distribution function for the graduating students was held by NIFT, New Delhi. There I observed an interesting thing that a single research project grabs all three awards.

This project is done by Nishant Priya and Shahzad Ahmad, B.F. Tech students of NIFT, New Delhi. They had initiated this project with an objective to design and development of an anti-molestation jacket which would provide the wearer safety against unsolicited physical contacts and would ward off the molester by giving a mild electric shock.

“The project has been successfully completed and college has applied for patent”, as said by Bhavna K. Verma, Center Co-coordinator, BFT, NIFT, New Delhi. Every year NIFT gives awards to the final year students after completion of their graduation project in three categories- Best project, Most Innovative Project and commercially most viable project. The duo received all the awards for the unique and innovative work. Their project work may bring a new pro…

Garment Zoning for the Inspection of Visual Defects

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Visual defects are categorized as Major, Minor and Critical defects. In some cases, a major defect can be considered as minor based on the location of the defect in a garment. This location is called as a zone(garment zoning). Garment zoning is done for fair evaluation of the garment during the visual audit.

Garment Zoning A garment can be divided into 3 zones, like A, B, and C. How many zones a garment would have been depended on products and end use of the garment.  Following zoning and marking defects accordingly (only major and minor defects are considered) inspector prepares the audit report.  So it is important to divide garment into sections and mark defects accordingly. For example, poor press at center front (zone - A) of a shirt is considered as the major defect but if the poor press is detected in the back bottom (Zone-B) of the same garment it is considered as a minor defect. You should be aware that defects that fall under B and C zones are not always considered as minor …

What is Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)?

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Home > Health & Safety

In apparel manufacturing this term is widely used when we talk about workplace health and Safety standards. But still newcomers hardly know about MSDS and why it is essential for keeping this sheet? I come across a good document on giz website and I like to share it with you briefly in this article. Factories those use hazardous chemical for the chemical processing like washing, dying and spot removing need to maintain MSDS. A basic MSDS contains information like – Chemical name, chemical formula, how to store, whether it is hazardous for health or not and how to take safety measure if chemical come in contact to body.

An image of MSDS board is shown in the following found in a garment manufacturing factory.


An MSDS of each chemical substance is kept in a central place, where every workers and supervisors can have easy access when needed. The detailed material safety data sheet contains valuable information about
characteristics, properties and quality o…

What is GPT and FPT in Textile Testing?

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In garment and textile testing, GPT stands for Garment Package Test and FPT stands for Fabric Package Test.

Each buyer sets guidelines for what all tests are mandatory at fabric stage and subsequent in garment stage. Buyers send this package tests list to their nominated testing labs. Prior to bulk production buyers asked for FPT and GPT test report from their vendors for production approval. Garment manufacturer then sends the sample (fabric or garment) to the testing labs for FPT and GPT.

Once garment manufacturer mentioned for FPT or GPT, testing lab performs all tests according to the buyer test manual. In this package test, garment manufacturers do not need to specify any test to the testing lab.

Pricing of FPT and GPT is done based on the tests to be performed as per buyer requirement.



Crock meter/Rubbing fastness tester
Image source: www.sdlatlas.com

In fabric stage, most of the tests (physical properties) are covered. If all requested test results don’t meet or exceed the …

Industrial Engineering #4

43. 20 Ways to improve productivity in garment production
Higher productivity brings higher margin in a business. And increment in Productivity level reduces garment manufacturing cost. Hence factory can make more profit through productivity improvement.
44. What is Skill Matrix for Sewing operators?
Skill Matrix is a chart or a database where operator’s past performances on various operations are recorded in a systematic way for the future reference. In a skill matrix operator performance is recorded in efficiency percentage.
45. Garment Production Cost: Actual cost Vs Cost per SAM
One of the most important KPIs for garment manufacturing is comparison between Actual costs Vs Cost per SAM. Factories calculate these costs and compare on daily basis. The actual cost figure shows that how much money factory is paying as make up to the operators. But exactly how these measures are calculated?
46. How to do Line Balancing using Operator Skill History?
The prerequisite of this method is to ha…

Garment Production Cost: Actual Cost Vs Cost Per SAM

One of the most important KPIs for garment manufacturing is a comparison between Actual costs Vs Cost per SAM. Factories calculate these costs and compare on daily basis. The actual cost figure shows that how much money factory is paying as make-up to the operators. But exactly how these measures are calculated? The different methods of calculating actual cost and garment cost per SAM has been explained in this article.
Actual Cost per Garment1. Actual cost -1:Formula of the actual labor cost of a garment- 
Actual cost = Total Salary to be paid/Total Units Produced.
For a line, Calculate Total salary (W) to be paid on the day including direct manpower. Find total units produced (U) in shift time (output of the line). 
2. Actual cost -2: Second formula is Total salary to be paid /(Total minutes produced/SAM)

Though the first method is used by most of the factories, it is not true actual cost. Because, only output quantity is considered in this cost calculation, where a lot of works is pro…

MIS Formats Used in Garment Manufacturing Units

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To manage and control apparel production data plays an important. So you need capture data from all production departments. A number of MIS formats are being used by garment factories to capture required data. Where some factories use basic formats, others use advanced or IT based MIS formats-like ERP software,  mobile application, AI tool etc.
By using MIS system (reports) managers can measure work, track information on the right time and in the right form. Some basic formats used by various departments such as merchandising, fabric store, cutting room, sewing floor, work study, quality audit and finishing department are listed here.
I have shared most of these MIS formats in various posts. To see those format use search button and type the format name. You can download few report template from this page.
Fabric Store MIS
Fabric issue and receive bookFabric inventory bookLogbook for fabric quality and swatchesFabric conciliation reportFabric Test Report (Internal Lab Test) Cutting room…

What is an MIS Format?

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Kelly has defined Management Information System (MIS) as “a combination of human and computer based resources, which result in collection storage, retrieval, communication and use of data for the purpose of efficient management of operations and for Business Planning”.
MIS formats are widely used in garment factories as a reporting system. In the garment industry, mostly in garment production, various information is being collected manually in a pre-designed format from each process for various purposes.  Later this information is entered into the computer to store and for retrieval and to provide wide access to the management team.

The purpose of recording is to know actual facts and figures of the shop floor and take a decision based on data. Data should be recorded in such a way that intended analysis can be made later. And most of the users can read and understand information captured in a format. Printed formats, that are used to record primary information are called as MIS format…

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