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Showing posts from January, 2013

The Textile Technologist’s Tale

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This guest post is contributed by Professor Julian Ellis OBE of Ellis Developments Ltd
We all take textiles for granted, yet they pervade every aspect of our lives. Not only do we wear clothes, and decorate our homes with carpets and curtains, but we sleep on textiles, we have them on car seats, in carpets in the boot, and use textiles as sound insulation in cars. Then there are textile surgical products, such as sticking plasters, artificial ligaments and vascular repair systems, defence products, like bullet resistant clothing, ground stabilisation textiles and …… I could go on and on for hours.

Difference between Tex and Tkt. in Thread Numbering

Sewing thread is a basic component of sewn products such as apparels. The thickness of sewing threads is defined by Tex. or Tkt. (Ticket). And these two thread numbering  terms are widely used as because mostly polyester threads are used for garment sewing. A same thickness of thread will have two different figure in these two systems. To reduce the confusion between Tex and Tkt. size, thread manufacturers marked both numbering system on yarn spool.

How Lucrative Your Attendance Bonus System is and its Impact?

This is a known fact that worker shortage is a big issue in Ready-made Garment Industry in our country. And a high percentage of operator absenteeism makes factory performance worse, in term of achieving factory efficiency and meeting deliveries. To tackle an issue such as worker absenteeism factories started giving attendance bonus to motivate their workers. Even, factories compete with their neighbor factories to attract more workers with better salary and bonus amount and other benefits. In the same area where one factory is committing to pay bonus INR 400.00 others are giving bonus upto INR 650.00 per month for full attendance.

Providing attendance bonus to workers is a good idea. Now question is - does your attendance bonus plan able to motivate your operators to be present full month?

It is true that operators come to the factory to earn money. If they get extra money just for coming full month why they should be absent? It seems very easy to control absenteeism issue.

I discus…

Purpose and Procedures of Style Discussion Meeting Prior to Start of Production

Style discussion prior to production is mostly known as Pre-Production Meeting or PP Meeting. This meeting is a vital part of preparation prior to production and smooth production run. Others called it Style Tear Down Meeting (TDM) or style discussion meeting. In whatever name you call it, the purpose of this meeting remain same. Main purpose of PP meeting and how PP meeting is conducted have been explained below.

Requirement of Skills for a Finishing Final Checker

Question was asked by Rana

Main job of a finishing checker in a garment manufacturing company is to check garments from outside and inside for material defects, stitching defects and loose threads. A checker checks if correct labels such care label, brand label and size label are attached at the right place. Finishing checker checks garments to detect defective garments from the given lot and send defective garment for alteration.

Order Completion Report - An Important MIS Report for Garment Exporters

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Question: Please explain OCR report. …asked by B.K. Gupta

Order Completion Report, mostly known as OCR, is an MIS report that is made once an order is shipped to customer. Processing of an order is not complete until OCR is made and submitted to cost accounting department. Profit from an order after shipment of goods can be assessed only when OCR is made.

Generally Production planning department made this report. But management can give responsibility to any other department or a person. It does not matter who made the report. Important point is that correct and complete information must be collected from departments those involved in making the order. Report is complied together to analyse figures on following parameters..

What is Non-Productive Time (NPT) and How to Track NPT?

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NPT in Industrial Engineering term is Non-Productive Time. The time that is spent by an operator without producing any garment (standard minutes) like 'set up time' is called nonproductive time. In garment production, non-productive time is measured to analyze how much standard time is lost due to machine downtime. A report is made by recording machine downtime or lost time is called NPT Report. And this is as essential MIS report where factory value each standard minute of its operators.


In an earlier post, I have discussed 4 major non-productive times. In this article, I will show you how factories capture NPT and make NPT report.

In most factories, Industrial engineers are responsible for recording and analyzing line wise NPT for the factory. Mostly printed formats are used to record non-productive time. How much time is lost in a line is recorded as because operator wise NPT recording is near to impossible in manual tracking? Non-productive time includes criteria where maj…

How to Calculate Product CM Cost at the Time of Order Booking?

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One of my popular posts, Garment CM cost estimation using SAM or SMV gives partial answer of this question. I have explained it further to make it clear how you can quickly calculate CM of a product at the time of order booking or initial stage of product development.

Fabric Color Approval Procedure

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In the process of product development, the customer and supplier need to define the material (fabric) color for the product that needs to be produced. The fabric color approval and shade matching procedure are explained in this post. There are several phases in completing this procedure like,
Define Color Standards Lab dip processColor matching 1. Define Color Standards The first step is to define the color standards for the fabric dyeing, which should be used as a frame for the future production. This means that the customer and supplier will set acceptable limits for the color variations. The customer must provide a reference sample to the supplier of the color requested and keep a sample swatch for their future reference.

The piece provided to supplier needs to be as big as possible so it will be easier for the supplier to hit the right color. The color matching will be different if the composition or weight of the provided fabric is different. Please notice that in case of using a…

Production Process Flow for Woven Garment Manufacturing

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If you are new to the garment manufacturing, you may find it difficult how garments are actually made in a factory? After receiving of fabrics, raw materials are passed through various processes before it is ready for shipment to the buyers. Some processes are necessary, where few processes are done based on customer demand and style requirement. A detailed process flow is also important for production planning and Time and action calendar making.

A single process flow does not fit for all orders. Like you may need printing or embroidery on the product or you may not. Buyer may ask for washing garments prior to finishing. Sometimes they may not.

In this article, I am showing you a process flow that is commonly used for woven products manufacturing. I prefer to show it in a flow chart instead of explaining the same with words.

In the below process flow chart, processes those are shown in the main flow are necessary processes like spreading, cutting, sewing, checking, pressing etc. Pro…

43 Useful Sites and Blogs for Garment and Textile Professionals

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I love reading. A lot of reading. What about you?
I am always in search of good online resources for reading and latest updates on apparel and textile industry.

Last year, I have discovered few good sites that I like to share with you. I am also sharing most common and popular sites to apparel industry professionals. Most of the sites are professional blogs, sites by institutes and organizations and online publications.

I have listed down those sites below in alphabetic order.
ASTM Textile Standards provide the specifications and test methods for the physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of textiles, fabrics, and clothes, as well as the natural and artificial fibers that constitute them. Apparel Merchandising, a blog on apparel merchandising, textile printing, knitting, garments manufacturing, embroidery etc. Apparel ResourcesAn online magazine with a valuable article in garment manufacturing, machinery, and latest technology.A fashionable stitch, a blog on sewing tips and tri…

Newbie? Start here...

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Welcome to Online Clothing Study.

Read this page before you explore this site and to know what you can get here.

It would be difficult for me to explain to you in one page what all you can get here. Instead, I will guide you how to find articles in this site that you need to start with.

If you want to improve your skill by learning and want to explore your knowledge in garment manufacturing, you are in the right place. I have published so many tutorials here, you can learn lot things here. Start learning online with your regular jobs.

I have covered most of the areas about garment manufacturing industry. I have made archive pages for a few important fields. You can directly link to those list from here. After reaching to the archive pages, you can search article titles for the lists.
Industrial EngineeringApparel MerchandisingQuality ControlProduction PlanningTechnology for Apparel IndustryApparel IndustryQ&A with OCS readersResourcesOnline Books (for purchase)
In case, you are int…

Children's Size Chart for Various Clothes by Age and Body Measurement

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It is quite difficult when it comes for selection of correct clothes sizes for kids - infants, girls and boys. Most of the parents go for age of the children when shopping different clothes for their kids. Still a size chart helps a lot to select right garments.

Here 3 set of size charts are shown for

Infants (0 Month to 4 years) Girls (4 Years to 12 Years) and Boys (4 Years to 12 Years)

Boy measurement are shown in centimeter and inches. Measure directly on the child's body. See the measurement position of the kid's body in left side image. Measure the whole length, from head to foot, of the child to get the correct size in cm or inches. Following size chart is taken from an online clothing site.


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