Showing posts from October, 2015

Apparel and Footwear Brands by VF Corp

You might be familiar with Wrangler jeans and Timberland polo shirt. But do you name of the company that own these brands? It is VF Corp.

Do you know how many brands are owned by VF Corporation? Many of their brands are well known to us. But you may not aware that they are part VF. Here is the big list of their brands and product types they have under those brand name.

PP Sample - What it is and Importance of PP Sample in Garment Industry

PP Sample is the short name of the Pre-production sample. A pre-production sample is one type of development sample.

PP sample is made in garment factories prior to starting bulk production. PP sample is made with actual fabric, trims and accessories of the style. As per buyer instruction PP sample must be prepared by the vendor in production line, but this does not always followed by vendors. Most cases PP sample is made in sampling department under the guidance of merchandiser and sampling master. Even many times production team does not aware about the PP samples that are made in their factories.

PP sample is made in one size and 3-4 PP samples are made for one style. Normally one piece for buyer, one piece for vendor (production depart) and others are made as counter sample for merchandiser and quality team.

Functions of Finishing Department in Garment Industry

In the production department garments are stitched by sewing machines. Stitched garments are finished in the finishing department. Finishing activities are performed prior packing garments into poly bags. The major activities of a finishing department include thread trimming, checking garments and ironing.

The folding, tagging and packing of garments are done in the packing section in the finishing department. This post covers major functions of the finishing department. Mind these functions may vary while there is a change in product categories.

Activities of the finishing department are listed below

1. Thread Trimming: In the stitching department, thread trails and thread chains are not trimmed neatly. Uncut threads and thread tails in garments are trimmed in the finishing department by helpers. Uncut and loose threads on garments are considered defects.

Also read: Functions of Production Department

2. Checking garments: All garments are checked at the finishing stage for visuals…

Functions of Cutting Department in Garment Industry

The cutting department is responsible for cutting fabrics and feeding the sewing department with cuttings. The cutting department’s capacity is planned based on the daily feeding requirement of the sewing lines. The cutting department is set up with a cutting department head, cutters, spreaders, quality checkers and helpers for sorting, ply numbering and bundling. The activities of the cutting department are explained in this post.

1. Take fabric from the fabric store: The cutting department gets a cut order from the production manager. According to the cutting plan, the cutting in-charge generates a fabric requirement sheet or requisition slip to the fabric store to issue fabrics.
2. Relaxation of fabrics: Knitted fabrics require relaxation before cutting. After receiving the fabric from the fabric store, the cutting department opens the fabric from the fabric roll and lays it on the table for relaxation for some hours before cutting. Factories also relax fabric in the fabric store…

How to Calculate Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ) in Readymade Garment Manufacturing

In an earlier post, I have discussed the cost of poor quality in the apparel industry. If you missed that post read it here.

I have visited many readymade garment manufacturers and worked on quality improvement projects with numerous companies. I observed none of those garment factories measured the cost of poor quality for the internal failures, appraisal cost and preventive cost of quality.

Now you learned that you can measure how much money you are wasting due to managing quality poorly in your factory. By measuring COPQ you can truly know how much money you are wasting. This is an opportunity for improvement.

In the previous article, we have discussed four kinds of cost of poor quality - internal failure, external failure, appraisal cost and preventive cost. In this article, I will show you how you can calculate internal failure cost, appraisal cost and preventive cost for making quality garments.

Internal failure costs are incurred due to rework, repair of defective garments a…

Functions of Production Department in Garment Industry (Stitching Department)

In the garment industry stitching section is considered as production department. Though fabric cutting and garment finishing sections are part of the garment production department. In this post, I will explain the function of production department.

The main function of the production department is stitching garments. But there are many associated activities performed by the production team to run the production floor smoothly. The major tasks of this department are described here but are not limited to these only.

1. Style Analysis  The line supervisor analyzes the garment construction of the style to be loaded to the line. He calculates the machine requirement for the style, based on the garment construction.
2. Estimating labour costs Line supervisors calculate the estimated cost per operation. In the piece-rate-production system, the supervisor sets piece rates for stitching operations. Those factories that have industrial engineering departments calculate direct labour costs ba…

The Entrepreneur’s Guide to Sewn Product Manufacturing, the book by Kathleen Fasanella

I am sharing about the much said and much loved book in the fashion industry (in apparel) - The Entrepreneur’s Guide to Sewn Product Manufacturing. This book has covered all necessary information and knowledge one needs to start business in sewn product manufacturing. Product may be a shirt, dress or jacket. Author has explained end to end process and included guides.

If you are planning (dreaming) to start apparel business in small scale, this might be the best book for you. You can buy it from

'The Sewing Machine Master Guide: From Basic to Expert' a Book by Blodget, Clifford L

I wanted to explore more about home sewing machines and industrial sewing machine. It happened while searching on Amazon store for such books, I found this book and purchased the book (Kindle version). The book 'The Sewing Machine Master Guide: From Basic to Expert' is written by Blodget, Clifford L.

I found this book is very helpful for learning about sewing machines, machine parts, and types of industrial sewing machines. If you are new in the garment manufacturing field, want to know about the sewing machine, would like to work or working in machine maintenance, this one is a must read book for you. This book is also covers sewing technology other than the sewing machine only, like different types of sewing stitches.

If you like to start home based garment line, and want to know about machine types available and machine price on Amazon store, you will get such idea from this book. This one is alos a good book for teaching students in institutes.

This book is available on Am…

IntelloBuy - Material Estimation Solution for the Sewn Product Industry by Threadsol

About IntelloBuy

IntelloBuy is a material estimation solution for the sewn product industry. It is the second product by ThreadSol bringing the enterprise material management model of the company to the next level.

IntelloBuy gives accurate buying consumption for the factory which saves millions of dollars of material cost at the buying stage every day for manufacturers worldwide.

Difference between Bobbin, Looper and Needle Elastic Threads

This is a guest contribution from Rakesh Kumar.

In an earlier post, Rakesh has explained what elastic thread is. He has also mentioned that the same elastic thread can be used as bobbin elastic, looper elastic and needle elastic threads. But when the elastic thread is called as bobbin elastic, looper elastic and needle elastic?

The differences between these threads are explained here.

Bobbin Elastic When the elastic thread is used in the bobbin to sew garment components, it is known as bobbin elastic. Stitch formation is being done with normal thread in needle and elastic thread in bobbin. This is used to provide gather look in the garment.

This stitch is being done on lock stitch machine only. Elastic thread can be winded (coiled) in bobbin manually or through bobbin winder. This stitch is helpful to provide better strength to seam due to lock stitch features.

Looper Elastic When the elastic thread is fed via looper to sew garment components are known as looper elastic. Stitch forma…

What is Bobbin Elastic Thread in Garment Stitching

This is a guest submission from Rakesh Kumar.

First, let me explain what elastic thread is. It is a kind of elastic which is mounted with thread. This thread is stretchable. Mainly used for shirring, smocking in garment component.

Thread mounting can be done clockwise or anti-clockwise. Anti-clock wise wrapping is helpful to provide locking strength to the stitch. Elastic threads are available in the different count. Elastic threads are thicker than normal threads.

Product and Process Costing in Garment Manufacturing

Product costing and product pricing is an essential part of a business. To estimate the cost of a product you need to develop skill on this by learning product costing method, and product manufacturing processes. This post is related to apparel manufacturing. Here you will find steps to prepare to cost for apparel products.

This is a useful article for apparel merchandiser and others, who is involved in garment costing. This article shows how to calculate material and process cost for a knitted polo shirt.
Product Costing The simplest way to find the product cost 
Product Cost = Raw material cost + direct labor cost + indirect labour cost + factory overhead cost
To estimate product cost you need to know or calculate all the above cost heads separately. I have earlier posted articles on raw material cost, direct labor cost, indirect labour cost, and factory overhead cost. Read these articles if you need clarification and calculation procedures.

1. Raw Materials Cost Let first discuss…

List of Download-able Files/Templates at Online Clothing Study

In the apparel and fashion manufacturing, formats, templates, and charts are very useful for learning things quickly and improve productivity in your daily work. At, I have shared many files, formats, and templates at the different time. Most of these formats/ files are free for downloading. You can download any files from this list.

I have observed that sometimes OCS readers find difficulty in downloading these files/formats. So, I often asked to send them those file by mail. I hope this list will be helpful for you.

In the following, I have provided links for reading related articles and links to download the file. In the linked articles, you will find a guide on how-to-use the format (but not for all). Some of the formats are image file. After opening those image files, save (Ctrl+S) in your computer.

Last updated: August 18, 2018
Time & Action Calendar template. See the post / Download excel templateProduction efficiency report format. See the post / Down…

How much Computer Knowledge is required for an Industrial Engineering Candidate in Garment Production?

Industrial Engineering department is becoming one of the core departments in apparel manufacturing (at least in garment export houses). Employers are looking for junior engineers and college pass-outs are looking for jobs. In this stage, one question asked by both how much computer literacy/skill is enough for the IE candidate. You may name junior IEs as work-study officers.

Look at the job profile of an Industrial Engineer (junior level). As we know, all senior IEs (Industrial Engineers) already literate in computers. An IE’s tasks include data capturing, data analysis and report making. In today’s factories, all these are done in computers.

How to Calculate Price of Knits Fabric per Meter (When Price is Quoted per Kg)

Question: I am facing problem in this calculation. The fabric price is given at ₹600 per KG of Knit Fabric. And the consumption is 0.20 kgs and GSM is 240. How do I calculate fabric price per meter? Please advise. ... asked by OCS reader
Knitted fabric is sold in weight (Kgs) and woven fabrics in linear length (meters or yards). Price for knits fabric is quoted per kg. To calculate fabric price in meter you need to find how many meters of fabric make one kg weight for that particular fabric. Following formula is used to convert kg to meter for knitted fabric.

Weight (in gram) = Fabric length (in meter) X fabric width (in meter) X Fabric GSM  Read this post to know how this formula is derived.

You need the following information to calculate fabric price per meter for knits.

Fabric weight - that is 1 Kg (as you have the price per kg)Fabric GSM - 240 gramsFabric width - Not available in your question. For example, I am considering fabric width is 1 meter (for calculation purpose) With abo…

OCS Reading Roundup:Textiles, Apparels and Fashions

Just sharing a list of few articles from various blogs and website for your weekend reading. Topics are randomly chosen but interesting. Reading is important for us as there are many things to learn. Do you struggle to find good and interesting reading content? Check these articles.

1. Denim Washing – Basic Steps and Guide // Some important steps in the process of Denim fabric washing include Pretreatment (Desizing, Rinsing, Scouring etc), Enzyme or Stone-wash, Clean up to adjust the desired effect, Bleaching, Tinting / Dyeing and Softening & Much more.

2. Cutting room consultancy: Fact over fancy // Fibre2fashion This article covers various ways to save fabrics with a case study of a Bangladeshi ready-made garment factory. Mausmi Ambastha, co-author of this article has mentioned technology solution to reduce fabric wastage and improve saving money by saving fabric.

3. 100% of 100 Facts about Cotton // Cotton plays an important role in our lives. We are …

About Online Clothing Study

At OCS we publish articles on apparel manufacturing, about technology used in garment industry, latest news, about events and fairs related to apparel. In apparel manufacturing you will find information on material sourcing, about textiles, sampling, merchandising, apparel production, pre-production and production planning, quality control and industrial engineering and about all kind of garment manufacturing processes. Most of articles are written as how-to-do guide and tips.

We have also published articles on how to start garment business and tips to run a garment business successfully.

With Online Clothing Study, you can learn and increase your knowledge and professional skill. Here we have published topics what our readers want to read. We have published many articles on question & answer.

In case you have any question related to apparel manufacturing or setting up garment business you can contact me.

We have some publications in the form of book, ebook, documentation, action…

The Beginner's Guide to Leggings Manufacturing (eBook)

Release of second version: July 2018

In the second version of Beginner's Guide to Leggings Manufacturing, I have included additional chapters. You will love the content of the new version.

Leggings are one of the most common bottom wears in ladies apparel-product basket. Like most boutiques, you might be also planning to start manufacturing leggings with your sewing machines. Or you might be new in this business and looking for information on how to start leggings manufacturing in small scale.

You might be thinking leggings are easy product to make. It has a big marketplace in your locality. Yes, you are thinking right way.

Most important thing is that legging is a basic product. There is no much design variation. No design difficulty and making the patterns. Only couple of items (raw materials) is needed making the leggings. You just need two pieces of clothes to make a legging.

You can start this business and grow if you have a passion in clothing business.

I had no intention to…

What is Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ) in Garment Industry

Total money a garment factory can save if there is no quality issue in the products at all is the cost of poor quality. Cost of poor quality can be explained in another way - the total money factory spends to make the product up to an acceptable quality level. Money spends in garment and material inspection, quality personnel training and in labour for repair work.

In the garment industry, most of the processes like cutting, printing, stitching, washing may produce defective garments. So to detect defective pieces, factories install checkpoints (inspection process) in the processes.

Operation Breakdown and Machines Types Used for Making a Cargo Pant

I made this operation breakdown in my college days as one class assignment. I visited one garment export house (factory) to study garment for this assignment. That time factory was making Cargo Pants (in Khaki fabric). It was a nice product.

When I started making an operation breakdown, first I was overwhelmed by looking at a number of operations of the cargo pant. In a cargo pant, I can only see double-needle stitching with thicker threads. Don't know where to start and how to breakdown operations. Then I follow the process, the way line was making that cargo pant. Finally, I made it and corrected later stage.

I did time study for most of the operations and also did motion study using SPD code and TMU values (Sewing Process Data). Here I am only sharing operation breakdown and machine types used for operations. I don’t have the actual image of the cargo pant that I had studied. Following image is just for an indication. Construction and styling of the actual cargo pant were dif…

5 Secrets to Bring Changes in Garment Factories for the Growth

"There is nothing permanent except change." – Heraclitus
To improve profitability and to compete with other businesses in your field, you need to change the way you work currently. Same is true for increasing yearly company turnover. You need to bring changes in your company. This article will cover what to change and why to bring change?

In the context of the current apparel business trend and customer demand, the owner of the garment manufacturing companies realized the urgent need to bring change in certain areas in their organization. I this article first I will show you some of the common issues inside garment factories and reasons behind the existence of such issues.
Current issues:
The main issue of a garment factory is that employees/departments are fighting with the common problems from the long time. Most of the known critical problems among those are
Late Shipment, Poor Product quality and High production cost These are chronic problems across the garment factories…

How to Convert Knitted Fabric Requirement from Meter to Kg (Kilogram)

Question: How can I convert knitted fabric from meters to kg? Suppose someone ordered me to make 1700 meters fabric with 230gsm and 72" width then how can I convert it into kg. Please advice. ... asked by OCS reader.

You can convert fabric requirement from meter to kg (weight) provided you have information of the following parameters
Fabric widthFabric weight per square unit (Normally fabric weight is represented per square meter in grams. (GSM) )Fabric weight that you want to convert in meters Use the following formula to know the approximate weight of the fabric roll.

Weight of a fabric roll is calculated using this formula

Areas of the fabric roll in open width X weight per square unit

Weight (in gram) = Fabric length (in meter) X fabric width (in meter) X Fabric GSM

In the example:
Fabric length is 1700 metersFabric width = 72 inch convert it into meters = (72 * 2.54) /100 =1.83 metersFabric GSM = 230 grams Use above formula to find the result

Weight (in gram) = 1700 X 1.83 X …

How to Convert Knitted Fabric Requirement from Kg to Meter

Question: I faced a situation in which knit fabric is in Kg. I want to convert kg into meters. I have used many formula by searching here and there, but no satisfaction. Please help me and provide me a simple method. You can convert fabric requirement kilogram to meters provided you have the necessary information for the calculation. You need to know following parameters for the given fabric.
Fabric widthFabric weight per square unit (Normally fabric weight is represented per square meter in grams. (GSM) )Fabric weight that you want to convert in meters

The formula to know the approx length of the roll/thān from its weight

The weight of a fabric roll is calculated using this formula

Areas of the fabric roll in open width X weight per square unit

Weight (in gram) = Fabric length (in meter) X fabric width (in meter) X Fabric GSM

Therefore to convert kg to meter use following formula

Fabric length (in meters) = [(Fabric weight in gram)/ (Fabric GSM *Fabric Width in meter)]

Fabric length…

What is Inline Finishing Production System in Garment Industry

Where garment finishing is done in production line by installing finishing and packing workstations, is known as inline finishing production system. This kind of production lines is known as online finishing production system. Normally finishing workstation is placed at the end of the sewing line. Finishing workstation includes activities like
Thread trimmingGarment checking (visual checking and measurement checking)Ironing garments and Folding, tagging and packing Where needed , washing machines are also installed in the production floor. Therefore in an inline finishing production system, cuttings bundles are loaded at the start of a line and you get finished and packed garments at the end of the line. This is new format of an assembly line. See the following diagram for inline finishing production system.

By following this production system you can reduce throughput time and improve response to the market. The inline finishing production system is very useful for short production r…

9 Things You Can do to Control Shop Floor Production in Garment Industry

This topic is related to garment manufacturing in the apparel industry. Controlling the shop floor means getting daily production as per plan, producing the desired quality of garments, and production cost and other factors are under control. Other production factors are like reduced line setting time, no excess lost time, and no excess overtime etc. Utilization of resources and line performances can be improved when you have better control of your sewing lines.

Normally, line supervisors are responsible to control the sewing lines. But when it comes to data analysis and data-based decision making, they are not trained on that part. So, industrial engineers (IE) intervention is necessary.

Workers Health and Safety in the Apparel Industry (Videos)

The apparel industry is a labour-intensive industry. In an existing garment factory or in a new set-up workers’ health and safety must be considered in the first place. Workers are the main resources that keep the machine running in a factory, and making the desired products.  In an unhealthy workplace, workers could not work for a long time. All companies must follow health and safety policies. 
In a garment unit, you need to take care of the following points at the factory level.
First aid boxMaintain accident resisterFire extinguishers with marked areaEmergency lights on the floor and in the path to the exitFire alarm Exit signsExit doors should be kept open while the factory is workingYellow lines on the shop floor to demarcate a pedestrian pathway and space for machinesFactory layout and evacuation plansNo obstruction in the aisles on the shop floorNo cables left loose or visibly hangingEnough light to the shop floorBroken needle record  policyCanteen for workers Enough toilets f…

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