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Showing posts from October, 2012

Work Study and Industrial Engineering Terms and Definitions

Work study officers and Industrial engineers daily use various technical terms like Basic time, Standard time, predetermined time, relaxation allowances etc. But due to unavailability of the reference books they find it difficult to explain these work study terms correctly when required. Some of the important terms and definitions related to work study are provided below for your quick reference.
Source: Introduction to Work Study, Edited by George Kanawaty, ILO, Geneva, 1992

How to Calculate Efficiency of a Line that Produces Multiple Styles in a Day?

Question: When a production line runs two or more styles having different SAM how can I calculate the efficiency of that line per day? ... asked by Alamrew Ayalneh
Not only you but many of others find problem calculating line efficiency on the day when one style is going to end and a new style is loaded to the same line. I am not clear when you face this problem
Is multiple styles are running to the line at the same time? or The previous style is over with some output and a new style is loaded at the back of the line?  However, I am discussing this issue in details. I hope you will get the answer to your question from it. There are two ways to find line efficiency like,


Formula#1:  Line Efficiency% = (Total line output * Garment SAM *100) / (Total operators * shift hours * 60) or

= (Total SAM of produced garments / Total worked hours*60)*100

Formula#2:  Line Efficiency% = (Sum of SAM produced by individual operators / Sum minutes attended by each operator) * 100 or

= (Total SAM produced …

How to Calculate Fabric GSM?

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What is GSM? GSM stands for grams per square meter. Fabric GSM means the weight of one square meter fabric in grams. GSM is also written as gm/m2. You can calculate GSM for woven and knitted fabric using one of the following methods.


By means of instruments:Apparatus required
Round GSM cutter and GSM PadWeighing Balance.Method:
- Cut 5 swatches from the different place of the fabric.
- Weight all test swatches accurately and calculate average weight of swatches.
- Multiply the average weight of swatches by 100 to calculate GSM of the sample fabric. (Normally, the area of round GSM cutter is 1/100 square meters.)


By Using Formula: No need to worry if you don’t have a GSM cutter. You can still measure fabric weight per square meter by using following formula. 

Read How to Find Fabric GSM without Using GSM Cutter? to know the detailed method.

Related Articles:How to Find Fabric GSM without Using GSM Cutter?How to determine GSM of woven fabric from its construction?

Industrial Engineering #5

57. Role of Industrial Engineers in Garment Production Management
In one of my previous post I have written a detailed list of job profile of an Industrial Engineer. Read that post to know more on job responsibility of an engineer. Read full article >>
58. How to Make an Operation Bulletin for a Garment?
An operation bulletin is one of the primary IE tools. An OB helps to set a production line with correct number of machines and manpower. Read full article >>59. How to Calculate Cutting SAM? 
Cutting SAM can be determined in the same way as you calculate stitching SAM of a garment. In cutting SAM calculation, consider cutting room sub-processes such as spreading, marking, cutting, fusing, re-laying, re-cutting, sorting, numbering and bundling as operations. Whether you like to determine only cutting SAM or all other processes also will depend on you. I have explained procedures for finding SAM for all cutting processes. Read full article >>
60. Why Do We Need to Measur…

What is the Difference Between Textile Designer and Fashion Designer?

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Textile Designer
A textile designer creates designs, patterns for fabric and develops fabric structures. The end product of a textile designer is fabric and embellishment of fabrics. Textile designers select yarns, yarn colors and dyes to make new fabric textures, hand feel and finished look. Textile designers do raw material sourcing to production follow up for new development. They give instructions to weavers, knitters how to make the fabric they have designed.

How to Calculate WIP level in Cutting, Sewing and Finishing Section?

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Question: How to calculate WIP levels in cutting, sewing and finishing section? ... asked by Rashmi Jain

Work in progress (WIP) or  in-process inventory includes the set at large of unfinished items for products in a production process. These items are not yet completed but either just being fabricated or waiting in a queue for further processing or in a buffer storage. In garment manufacturing WIP is generally measured in pieces (unit). WIP can be measured  Total pieces loaded in a process minus total pieces out from that process is the WIP of that process.

If you only want to calculate current WIP level or how many pieces are there as a WIP in a section use following formula -

Cutting Room WIP: 
When one calculates cutting room WIP only stock cut pieces is considered as cutting WIP. Fabric those are layered on table or received from fabric store for cutting is not considered as WIP.

Cutting WIP = Total cut qty - Total qty sent to sewing,
For example, Cutting room cut total 5000 pie…

What does ‘L’ Letter after Button Size Stands for?

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Question: What does ‘L’ letter really stand for after the button size 18, 14 etc.? What's the measurement for buttons? ... asked by Sineth

‘L’ letter stands for Ligne (Button size code).
As defined by The free Dictionary Ligne is a linear unit  used to measure diameter of buttons. 1 Ligne equals to 1/40 inch.

How to Calculate Manpower Requirement of Finishing Section?

Question: How to calculate manpower strength required in garment finishing? Please advice how to apply Industrial Engineering methods to improve finishing efficiency? ... asked by Raju


To determine manpower requirement in finishing section follow the below steps

1. Define what all works/tasks that you perform in finishing section like checking, thread cutting, pressing, measurement, folding etc.

Comparison of Bar Code and RFID Systems in Managing Garment Production Shop Floor

Question: Can you compare Bar code and RFID systems that used in shop floor management in apparel industry? What are their advantages and disadvantages if using in shop floor management? 


To manage production floor better way targeting better output, shop floor production information is very essential. For the purpose of line balancing, knowing hourly production and even individual operators performance at the end of the day the common method is capturing operator wise production quantity manually. To replace manual data tracking process with IT based technology, Bar code and RFID systems are available. Both system have their own advantages and disadvantages. In the following I have compared both systems in different parameters.

What Documents are Sent by Buyers First to Start Work with Garment Manufacturer?

Question: What documents are sent by a buyer to start work first, e.g. order sheets or some things else? Buyer first sends something to a buying house or manufacturer, by which we make the required garment? ... asked by Mustafizur Rahman

Order sheet is not been forwarded at first stage of communication between buyer / buying house to garment manufacturer. Only when it is a re-order, buyer sends directly production order sheet to its vendor. To start work with for new seasons or an order buyer start with product development (mostly known as sampling). For production development or sampling buyer may sent

How to Calculate no. of Machines, Working Days and Output Based on Order Quantity?

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Question: How to calculate no. of machines, working days & output based on order quantity? ... asked by Modhu.


First, let me explain relationship between no. of machines, total working days and output for a particular order. Daily output of a production line is directly proportional to the no. of sewing machine used for production. And total working days required to complete an order is just reverse (provided factory works daily fixed hours). This means if you increase no. of sewing machines than no. of required days will reduce.

How to Make Production Planning Task Easier?

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Question: What are the main tasks (process or steps) of production planning in garment manufacturing? How one can easily make a production plan for the woven factory? ...asked by Arif Hossain 
The main tasks of the Production Planning Department in a garment manufacturing unit have been explained in an earlier post. Read the full article here - Functions of Production Planning and Control (PPC) Department in Apparel Manufacturing How to make Production planning task easier? I don’t need to mention that Information Technology (IT) based planning tools (packages/software) are very helpful in production planning as well as decision making. 
What to do when someone doesn’t have an IT-based system? You need to develop planning tools and build an internal system for easy access to necessary information. Planning tools will help you to make production planning faster and more accurate. 
Planning tools: The primary planning tools used by a planner in a garment export house to do production pl…

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