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Showing posts from January, 2017

Sample Question Papers for NIFT Entrance Exam (pdf download)

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Entrance exam for NIFT admission 2017 will be held on 12th February 2017.



You might be looking for sample question papers for NIFT entrance examination. NIFT has uploaded sample question paper for following courses. Download the pdf sample question papers by clicking on the links.

B.Des ProgramBF Tech. ProgramM.Des ProgramMFM ProgramMF Tech. Program These questions are illustrative. The pattern, scope, arrangement, variety, difficulty level, etc in the actual question paper may vary.

NIFT Entrance Exam Preparation Books on Amazon

Which Job is the Most Challenging One in the Garment Industry? (Poll Result)

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Recently we had run an online poll on the following.
Which Job is the Most Challenging One in the Garment Industry?

In the garment industry, we play many roles to bring the best apparel products in the retail showrooms and to export garments to the different parts of the world. Major roles that come first in our mind are -

Apparel merchandisingIndustrial engineeringQuality controlFabric and trims sourcingProduction management
In the poll, we have asked our readers to vote one job profile that they are most challenging in the garment industry. The poll closed tonight. We received 395 votes. It was really a good response. Seems, you are eager to know the poll result. Here it is.


Thanks to all those participated in this poll and made it a successful event. If you missed the poll, you can share your thought in the comment box and write which job is the most challenging one.

Top Fashion Design and Technology Institutes in Bangladesh

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Bangladesh in one the top readymade garment exporters in the world. Top fashion colleges and institutes in Bangladesh are listed here. These colleges provide courses such as fashion designing, apparel manufacturing and technology, apparel merchandising and knitwear design.

1. National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT), Bangladesh
2. BGMEA University of Fashion and Technology (BUFT)
3. College of Fashion Technology & Management
4. Bangladesh Institute of Fashion & Design Technology
5. Chittagong BGMEA Institute of Fashion and Technology (CBIFT)

Institute wise course details are listed below. Course list updated on 25th January 2017
1. National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT), Bangladesh Courses provided by NIFT, Bangladesh
MBA Program:
MBA in Fashion MerchandisingHonours:
B. Sc Honours in Fashion Design & Technology(FDT)B. Sc in Knitwear Manufacture & Technology (KMT)B. Sc Honors in Apparel Manufacture & Technology (AMT)Diploma courses:
Diploma in Apparel Me…

Operation Bulletin of a Formal Trouser

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An operation bulletin is an essential tool for style analysis and line set in the garment industry. For your reference, an operation bulletin of a formal trouser is shared in this post. You can refer to this operation bulletin to learn about various operations involved and machine requirement in making a trouser.



If you are wondering how to make an operation bulletin, read the process of making an operation bulletin.

Operation Bulletin of a Formal Trouser An operation bulletin of a formal trouser is shown in the following table. In this OB, operations list, estimated time, machine requirement, manpower requirement and hourly production target quantity at 80% efficiency are shown.

Disclaimer: The standard time (SAM) shown in the above OB, may vary depending on the product design, methods followed, and machine and equipment used in actual production. So be careful while you measure SAM against each operation. You are suggested to calculate operations SAM by your own if you know how to c…

Inventory Management and Control Software (ERP) for Apparel Manufacturing Businesses

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The traditional method for recording inventory details in the spreadsheets (Excel) is no more an efficient tool for managing the apparel business. To manage and control the inventory in the store and warehouse, an inventory management software is an essential aid. Most of the apparel manufacturers are already equipped with an ERP software, for managing manufacturing business, that includes inventory management module.

In this post, I have listed 8 well-known apparel ERP systems that have an inventory management module. If you are looking for an ERP solution for your business, you can look at these systems.
1. Datatex ERP

Datatex is an ERP solution that have inventory management module.

[Company profile]

2. WFX
In WXF Inventory management module has following features
Multiple warehousesRoll-wise & lot-wise inventoryReal-time view to goods received and dispatched across locationsConfigure business rules (Tolerances & Delivery schedules)Maintain Reorder levels and minimum order q…

What is Lycra?

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LYCRA® is the brand name and trademark of one of the elastane fibre. Lycra brand spandex fibre is produced by Invista (Koch Industries). Lycra fibre is lightweight, nearly invisible synthetic fibre. Lycra product is the best among elastane fibre quality to date. It can be stretched 5 times to its original length.

In the apparel industry, lycra is referred to the fiber that is inserted into fabric for improving fabric stretchability. Lycra is the high stretchable fiber that improves fabric and cloth's stretchability. Whenever lycra in used is in the fabric, it improves the stretchability, moves, and shape of the clothes.


What is Lycra fabric? The fabric that is made of any kind of fibers (cotton, polyester, or nylon), either knitted or woven, but contains Lycra content, is known as lycra fabric. Lycra fiber is inserted in the fabric is at the time of weaving or knitting process. Lycra has gained so much popularity that the stretchable fabric is called as lycra fabric, whether the e…

Download Juki Sewing Machine Catalog

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A machine catalog provides detailed information about the machine and its specifications. If you are using Juki machines, or if you like to learn about a machine and its specification, you should read the machine catalog.


You can download general machine catalog from JUKI website.

You will get following kind of information inside the catalog.



You need to enter your name, mail id, company name, and country name to download the manual.

I have recently downloaded the machine catalog and find it very useful. All types of machines are covered (including different machine models in each machine types) in the general catalog.

If you know your machine model you can download the catalog for the specific machine model. Open the all document download page, search your machine model, download the catalog.


Image source: These are screenshots of the Juki catalog and the catalog list page from Juki.

Earned Hours Calculation Method

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In a production house, operators attend the full shift hours for work. But while you look at their production output in hours that might not be the same as the attended work hours.


The formula for calculating earned hours:
Earned hours = (Number of pieces produced * Standard minute of the job)/60 Note: In the above formula 60 is used to convert earned minutes into earned hours.

Earned hours calculation method: To calculate the earned hours for your workers, follow these steps

Define SAM for all operations (sewing and non-sewing operations)Count quantity produced by the operator. You should record operation wise production quantity, as an operator may work in multiple operations, and of different SAM.Now follow the above formula to calculate earned hours for all operators one by one. You can use the spreadsheet for calculating earned hours quickly.In case one operator is doing more than one operations, first calculate operation wise earned hours, then sum up the operation wise earned h…

Efficiency Formula: Calculate Operator Efficiency and Line Efficiency

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The efficiency formula is used for measuring batch production efficiency and workers' production efficiency.

The efficiency is the work output from an operation, divided by work input from the same operation, and expressed as a percentage. The general formula for calculating efficiency is:
 (Work output /work input) X 100 If you consider work input and output in 'minute', the efficiency formula would be like this - the ratio of total standard minutes produced and total minutes spent on the work.

I am working in the apparel manufacturing sector. In a garment manufacturing factory, we calculate line efficiency every day to check and measure their line performance. We use the following formula for calculating efficiency.


Efficiency % = (Total minutes produced X 100)/(Total hours worked X 60) In the above formula, 60 is multiplied to convert hours into minutes and 100 is multiplied to express in percentage.

In the second formula, instead of calculating minutes, we are conside…

Trim Card and Its Use in the Garment Industry

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A trim card is used to show approved trims by attaching all garment trims and accessories on the trim card. In the production floor, supervisors used to follow the trim card as a guide for identifying the right trims.

The trim card is made of white paper which is little thicker than the normal A4 printing paper. The company name, company logo, and company address are printed on the top. The size of the trim card normally kept higher than A4 size paper. Sometimes A4 size is also used for trim cards. The trim card and the swatch card are referred to the same card. When a fabric swatch is attached to the card it is also called as swatch card. When trims are attached the same card is called as the trim card.

Swatch card and the trim card is sent to buyers as well as to suppliers with the fabric swatch or other items or trim card can be used for internal use. 
In a garment export house merchandisers are supposed to make the trim card for the order they are handing over to the production t…

What is Lay in Apparel Cutting Room?

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Lay: In bulk cutting, a number of fabric plies are laid on the cutting table. The whole number of fabric plies that is spread on the table and cut at a time is called as lay.

A 'lay' is also called as 'cut'. A unique number is given to each lay.  A lay can be made by any number of fabric layers. It may be a single layer or 20 layers or 100 plus layers. A lay is shown in the following image. On the top of the marker is made using paper pattern in case manual marker making.


In this article, I have also explained other terms related to lay.

Lay slip: A format or slip used to record lay details is known as lay slip. Lay slip is also known as lay order. In the lay slip normally records, such as the number of each lay, lay length, a number of fabric plies, a number of markers and number of plies spread from each fabric roll etc. are recorded. Later the fabric left out such as end bits, and end loss is calculated using lay slip data. Spreading time to make a particular lay can…

How to Maintain Fabric, Trim and Accessory Record in an Excel Sheet?

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Fabrics, trims and accessories are raw materials for a garment manufacturing business. In a garment factory the fabric and trim store is responsible maintaining inventory record. In this post I have shared one simple excel format for your reference. I have also explained how to make inventory tracking format in Excel sheet.

You purchase different types fabrics, trims and accessories items for your orders and you also keep inventory for these items. You should keep stock of inventories of raw materials in your store to keep the production on without any break. High level of inventory cost to company and fewer inventories may slow down the production rate. To maintain right inventory level, you should know how much inventory you have in your store of all type of items and how much inventory you are expecting to receive in your store and expected date of receiving those items.

As a store keeper, your main responsibility is to maintain minimum stock of all items (regular items) and contr…

Reduce Sample Development Cost and Sample Lead Time by 3D Avatars

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Its time to shift to 3D virtual garment technology to minimize the sample development cost and to reduce the sample lead time. The technology is called as 3D virtual prototyping of clothing products.

One of the biggest challenge faced by apparel manufactures is getting development samples done on time. Failing to do so result in many setbacks to the companies. Samples are used for various decision making steps. At early stages of development, samples are looked at to decide a possible manufacture. Based on the samples received by each company, buyers will decide which company has the best handwriting. Even if they find a company has quoted a better price but the sample is not arrived on time, buyer most probably decides to go with the company which has sent the sample on time.

Also development samples used in range selection meetings and salesman samples. If the samples not reached buyers on time, naturally the manufacture loose out the orders. Developing samples and sending on time …

Sourcing Fabrics from Different Places in India

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This is a guest submission from Pulak Debnath.

Fabric is the main component of a garment and it contributes approx 60-70% in garment cost. Hence fabric sourcing is one of the most important aspects for a garment manufacturer. Fabric sourcing is a strategic decision a garment manufacturer should take cautiously before taking garment order. Choosing a good fabric supplier means your half job is done.


The first step for fabric sourcing is to identify the fabric quality i.e.
Woven or knitsSolid, Prints or yarn-dyed, Count-construction, GSM, weaveContent e.g. Cotton, Viscose, Polyester etc After analyzing the fabric quality, the next step is to identify a supplier who can offer the quality at best price. Though price is the most important parameter for supplier selection, but one should consider the other aspects also like lead time, quality parameters required, supplier's performance in past orders in terms of delivery commitment, quality of fabric delivered, their response to qualit…

What is the meaning of SMV in Work Study?

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In this post, the term SMV is explained. The formula used to calculate SMV is also shown based on various concepts.

In work-study SMV stands for Standard Minute Value. 

SMV is the standard time allowed to an operator (worker) to complete a task. See the ILO definition of standard minute.



SAM and SMV are used interchangeably. Some experts defines SMV in different ways. Like - SMV as cost per minute (monitory term) Or SMV is used to express individual operations's SAM and SAM is used to express complete product SAM.

Read the difference between SAM and SMV to know the different school of thoughts on these two terms.

Where most industrial engineers in India use the term SAM, the GSD system use SMV in place of SAM.

SMV Calculation Formula Case#1: When you use SMV as SAM, following formula can be used. First SAM is calculated for individual operations. Once you have SAM of all operations of a garment, sum up individual operation SAM to calculate garment SAM.

Standard Allowed Minute = (…

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