Textile Finishing: Different Types of Chemical Finishes for Textiles

In an earlier post, you read the classification of chemical finishes. This post will cover those chemical finishes in detail.

1. Parchmentsing

Cellulosic fabrics, when treated with concentrated sulphuric acid under special conditions produce the remarkable organdie finish. This process is known as parchmentising.

A thin closely woven cotton fabric is transferred into a beautiful transparent fabric with slight stiffness, the effect is permanent. Action of sulphuric acid is characterized by three different effects depending upon its strength.

Also see: Different Types of Mechanical Finishing for Textiles

2. Anti-Soil finish

Soil can be any substance, which in some way has a negative influence on the desired demand profile of a textile substrate during its use or washing. The development of anti-soil finishes is aimed at minimizing these interactions between the soil and the textile material (substrate). Soil can be:
  • Water soluble organic/inorganic soil
  • Water insoluble inorganic (cement)
  • Water soluble organic, non-polar type soil(pigments)
  • Water soluble organic, polar soil(fatty acids in the form of sweat, proteins-egg yellow)
(Source: Factors influencing the interaction between dirt and textiles by Achwal, W.B . Colourage;Jul99, Vol. 46 Issue 7, P49)

3. Wrinkle free finish

This finish is given to textiles (fabrics as well garments) eliminate wrinkles or crease after use. 
  • Pre cure process: is generally used for fabrics which do not require pleats and are to remain flat. All the steps (pad dry and cure) are performed at the mill level
  • Post cure processing: In the post cure process, the uniform distribution of chemicals is assured, since 'sensitization' (application of all necessary chemicals followed by a low temperature controlled drying) is done at the mill level in the fabric form.
Anti-crease finish, Wash-and-wear finishes, Durable Press finishes are further development of wash-and-wear finishes.

4. Flame Retardants

The need for textiles that are nonflammable during their normal period of use has led to the development of a number of durable fire retardants for cotton fabrics. Flame retardants based on phosphor amide derivatives have been documented, and their suitability for the flame retardant treatment of cotton fabrics has been evaluated. In recent reviews the more important durable flame-retardants used as additives or co-reactants in fibres or in finishes for fibres were summarized.

5. Fluoro-chemicals As Textile Finishing Agents

Fluoro-chemicals are the only chemicals, which can impart water, oil and stain as well as dirt repelling properties to textile materials. When a drop of oil is added on a textile surface it forms a contact angle with it.
  1. If the contact angle is higher than 900, there is drop formation and hardly any wetting of the surface 
  2. If the contact angle is less than 900, there is wetting of the surface 
  3. If the angle is 00, there is complete wetting of the surface, immediately 

6. Deodorant and antimicrobial finishes

Deodorant and antimicrobial finishes enhance apparel performance while meeting consumer-led feature demands. Mold, mildew, fungus, yeast, and bacteria (microorganisms) are part of our everyday lives. Micro organisms are both beneficial and hazardous. The thousands of species of microorganisms that exist are found everywhere in the environment. Understanding microorganisms provides us a basis for controlling them and their negative effects. This control capability, with the right technology, can provide for a valuable feature on a wide range of textiles. Deodorant and antimicrobial treatment are rapidly becoming a standard finish in some textile categories and should be viewed as a finish with a future. This paper discusses the various deodorant finishes that are being applied, and what it means in safety, durability, and effectiveness. (Source: Antimicrobial finishes, D.Gopalakrishnan and R K Aswini Fibre2fashion.com)

Prasanta Sarkar

Prasanta Sarkar is a textile engineer and a postgraduate in fashion technology from NIFT, New Delhi, India. He has authored 6 books in the field of garment manufacturing technology, garment business setup, and industrial engineering. He loves writing how-to guide articles in the fashion industry niche. He has been working in the apparel manufacturing industry since 2006. He has visited garment factories in many countries and implemented process improvement projects in numerous garment units in different continents including Asia, Europe, and South Africa. He is the founder and editor of the Online Clothing Study Blog.

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