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Showing posts from December, 2011

Secret Behind Calculation of Machine Time in SAM

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Standard Allowed Minute (SAM) of an operation is the sum of 3 different parameter, i.e. machine time, material handling (with personal allowances) time and bundle time. Material handling and bundle time is calculated by motion analysis.
Do you know how the machine time is being calculated? A standard formula is used to calculate machine time. In this article it has been explained in details. In this article you will get information on how machine time is calculated for SAM.

Machine time consist of 5 parameters as following
Straight machine time (A) Number of stops/starts in a seam (B) Stopping Accuracy (C) Difficulty of material handling (D) Machine allowance (E)1. Straight machine Time (A): Straight machine time is explained as the time needed in sewing a seam without considering accurate stop at the end of the seam, material handling and machine allowance. To calculate straight machine time you need Machine RPM, SPI and Seam length.

Formula: Machine Time (A) = SPI X Seam Length/…

Apparel Entrepreneurs Resources

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Knowledge is king. Resources are optional. In this page, I have shared useful links for the apparel entrepreneurs resources to enhance their technical know-how and connecting to the other businesses in the global apparel supply chain.


Entrepreneurs resources: Recommended Books Following books are very useful to understand the apparel business, raw material, business insights and business process. You can read these books to enhance your knowledge and build confidence in running your business with continuous growth.
Clothing Technology: ... from fibre to fashion by EuropaA must-read book for those who are new to the apparel industry. In this book, you will learn basic from fibre to fashion. This is a good book for fashion students who need an overview of various processes, technical terms etc.The Entrepreneur’s Guide to Sewn Product Manufacturing by Kathleen Fasanella A must-read book for those who want to start a clothing line and start a business in garment manufacturing. Managing pro…

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Online Clothing Study was launched in 2011. We basically cover contents from basics to advanced knowledge and information related to apparel manufacturing.  

5 Reasons that fail production plan and cause shipment delay

This article is written based on my observation considering the Indian garment export houses. Making a plan and execution of the plan is ‘must do’ task to meet the lead time. As standard procedure factories make plans and do extensive follow up of tasks. Still factories do not meet their target dates for final inspection and fail to ship good on agreed shipment date. In this article, I have explained the 5 most visible reasons that cause the delay in shipment.

Product development and sampling
Product development and sampling stage fall under pre-production processes. Other pre-production processes include sample approvals, finalising vendors and cost negotiation with raw material suppliers. Most of the factories do not consider including development stage schedule under plan. It results in no control on pre-production processes. It goes long and long. When sample approval gets detailed, consequentially ordering of trims and fabric get delayed. A complete plan is done when you include …

How to Grade Sewing Operators?

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Generally workers are categorized as skilled, Semi-skilled and unskilled for deciding wages for them. Others grade operators as A, B or C according their experience and expertise on the job. If grading of the operators is done scientifically it will help in selection of operators during line setting of a new style. It also works as employee motivator. When operators upgraded to the higher grade they get motivated and give extra efforts to the next jump. In most of the factories operator’s salary is decided according to their grade level (only when operator is paid on salary basis).
In this article, I will explain how factories do grading of their operators and good result in managing worker.
Grading of the operators is done in three steps.

1. Grading of the operations: 

First operations those are performed in making garment are graded on the basis of

Critical and non critical operation, Skill level required to perform an operation, Machine used, such as Single Needle Lock Stitch, Over …

Traffic Light System for Quality Inspection in Garment Manufacturing

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Like other quality inspection tools, the traffic light inspection system is widely used in garment quality inspection. This system is used to stop producing defect at the source. This is a random inspection system. Traffic light system is more effective in controlling shop floor quality than other quality tools because of its visual communication. At the same time, it measures operator’s performance level in quality. No operators like be presented themselves as lower quality makers. They concentrate on quality aspect during stitching garments.

The format used for displaying as well as recording audit report. The format is very simple to use and to understand. The format is printed on a slightly thick A4 sheet and hanged on the sewing machine. In this system quality auditor visit operator’s workplace 4 times in a day (considering 8 hours shift day) and inspects stitched garments and fill circles with color according to the inspection result. In the initial stage when this format had be…

Real-time Shop Floor Production Monitoring Systems for the Apparel Industry

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Real-time shop floor data tracking and production management systems such as Leadtec (Blue Cherry Shop Floor Control system), iWorkPMS, Raptor are gaining popularity day by day in apparel manufacturing.

These systems use RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) or Barcode technology for real-time information capturing. Information tracked via RFID readers (terminals) from the shop floor is processed through software and provides various real-time reports that help managing production. Most essential reports such as line balancing, WIP, individual operator performance, line performance and employee earnings are available within a second.

In India, Leadtec system is quite familiar for shop floor production monitoring and efficiency improvement. Name of the lead RFID solution providers with their product name listed in this post. To learn more about the products you can visit their site.

Related: Real-time production tracking system - all that you will get by scanning bundle tags
Blue che…

Top 10 Tips to Reduce Garment Sampling Time

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Delay in sampling effects the product shipment. Secondly, when sampling processes get delayed productivity of sampling department gets reduced. Merchants need to be involved in sampling for a longer time for the same style. There may be hundreds of reasons for the delay in sampling but still, sampling time can be reduced by following tips mentioned below.

Be proactive- finish your backlogs, create capacity for fresh sampling, research for sourcing of sampling material. Even you can make a directory for all available material in the sampling store for fabrics, trims, threads, laces, beads etc that can be used for initial sampling. If you know your buyer better you can be prepared for the new season prior to getting sampling request. Make Time and Action Calendar - Do planning for your sampling styles in details. Note when to start a task and when to finish it. Mention name of the responsible person for the task.  Follow task according to the plan. Chase the person until the task gets fi…

Operation Breakdown and SAM of the Full Sleeve Formal Men’s Shirt

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Prior to defining SAM of the garment, detailed operation breakdown is made by engineer. Both manual and machine operations are included in the operation list. Then a skilled operator is given to do operations one by one.

5 to 10 samples are studied.

All operations are studied by GSD expert for motion analysis. At the same time all operations are videoed for future reference. Calculated SAM of the operations for a Formal Shirt has been shown in the following table. This has been defined by a GSD practitioner of a large size Indian garment export company using GSD software.

The following SAM of each individual operation will help to understand how a shirt’s SAM reach up to a certain value. The SAM of the operation may vary according to the changes styling of the shirts, seam length, attachment and work aids used, motion sequence used by the operator and machine type. 


Product: Full Sleeve Men’s Formal Shirt. Brand: Arrow 
Total Garment SAM: 22.32 minutes. Sl. No. Operation List SAM

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