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Showing posts from June, 2011

Pre-Production Processes in Garment Manufacturing

When we talk about garment manufacturing, we mostly cover bulk production processes. To know about the complete garment manufacturing process one should also learn about the pre-production process.
What is a pre-production process?The processes that are done prior to the start of bulk garment production are known as pre-production process. From sample development, approvals, research and development work for orders, testing of raw material to pre-production meeting are pre-production process. Pre-production processes are very important for the efficient production. 

A typical garment export house generally has following pre-production processes:
Meeting with buyers In this stage, the designer of a manufacturing house shows their creations, latest designs to buyers. On the other hand, if the buyer already had fixed design of a style and need few changes on it related to fit, fabrics or trims they discuss those things with the merchandiser of the manufacturing unit. Development of initial s…

Ready Made Shirt Manufacturing for Domestic Market in India

Domestic market for the ready made garments is growing in a fast pace. No need to mention that many export garment manufacturers have started making garments for domestic market only and left producing export orders. Lot of  such companies started their own brands for the domestic customers. 
One most common product in our clothing is shirts. Five years ago most of us used to wear only tailor made shirt but now most prefer to buy ready made shirts. So demand of the ready made shirt is increasing day by day.  And the good thing for you is that it creates an opportunity for those who want to start small business in garment manufacturing. 
Also See: Shirt Manufacturing Process

In this post I have shared a case study of a shirt manufacturing factory. For the initial guide you may get lot of information about how to start a shirt manufacturing factory but a this study will help you a lot in understanding how the existing factories are doing this business.

Preproduction Inspection Stages Followed by Buying House

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In the apparel export business a buying house works as middleman who collects orders from overseas buyers and places those orders to export houses for manufacturing. To supply quality products to the buyer consistently, buying house develops an internal quality and technical team. To assure about the garment quality buying houses follow standard operating procedures. Here I have explained the quality checking procedures in each stage of manufacturing processes from fabric development to shipment. Most of the buying houses do inspection as following stages.

Elements of Clothing Design

The primary elements of clothing design are product silhouette, line, color, fabric and trimming. When clothing is designed all of these elements are taken in account.

#1. Silhouette:It is the most dominant visual element of a garment. Silhouette means the shape of a garment. The basic silhouettes are classified into three categories like,

Basic Textile Testing Parameters

To verify the material specifications, the firm uses product testing (textiles, garments) to determine the minimum specification for compliance with specifications. Specifications often include the test methods and procedures used to verify the performance criteria. Following are the basic testing parameters for apparel products.
1. Fabric Construction: Fabric construction means the weave used to make the fabric. Under this parameter density of the ends and picks are measured i.e. Ends per inch (EPI) and Picks per inch (PPI). Also testing is done for warp and weft yarn count. Construction is essential because fabric GSM depends on the weave types and yarn count. Other properties like surface smoothness, stiffness, tearing strength, surface texture and hand feel depend on the fabric weave.

Also See: How to find fabric EPI and PPI?
2. Dimensional stability:
Many times it is found the dimension of the fabric (garment) get changed after washing or other wet processing. It happens due to s…

Organizations which provide Standards for Apparel Industry

Digital Textile Printing Process

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What is Digital Textile Printing? Digital Textile Printing (DTP) is the most modern technique of textile printing. By this technique, we can print textile material without using any block or engraved roller or screen but with better prominence of images. There is lot of flexibility of working as we can easily change the colors if it does not match with the sample within a few seconds.

The digital textile printing process flow is very short comparing with the rotary screen printing. But printing cost is very high compared to other textile printing methods. So this process is not yet accepted as an option for the mass production. This technique is generally used to produce samples for the new designs and used for designer’s costume. But recent years garment and textile printing facilities preferring to have digital textile printing in-house to reduce the sampling lead time.
To make you understood the Digital Textile Printing processes, a typical process flow has been explained in the fo…

Different Types of Denim Washing

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What is Denim Washing? In denim, garment washing is done to produce effects like color fading with or without patchiness, crinkles, seam puckering, hairiness, de-pilling, softened-hand feel, stabilized dimensions etc.


Normally the process of garment washing involves stages like product evaluation and preparation desizing, braiding, bleaching, anti-chlorine / post scouring, over-dyeing (optional), softening, hydro-extracting and tumble drying. Various process effects for special products can be obtained by using combinations of these procedures. Different processing parameters can be set for each stage to enhance and improve the effects. Since denim constitutes the largest portion of the garments that are washed, the term 'wash' has come to mean the finishing of denim garments.

Types of denim finishing and procedures:Stone Washing:
This method is most common and is used to give denim an 'old look'. Pumice stone is one of the most important components used to abrade the …

Sewing Process Flow Chart for Crew Neck T-Shirt

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It is always easier to understand a picture than just description. How to make a T-shirt can be explained many times but students learnt it completely when they see it in the production floor. A process flow chart gives them the logic how operations follow sequence one after another.
A sewing process flow chart has been depicted in the following figure to guide learners how a T-shirt is being made in a bulk production system. It is assumed that T-shirt has neck tape (fabric bias cut tape). The process flow is also showing the sequence of operations that are generally being followed. Some factory may have a slightly varied sequence.
A crew neck T-shirt has six components – Front, Back, Neck rib or Collar, Neck tape and two sleeves. In the figure, on the top four sections of the garment component have been shown. The arrows show the flow of operations and inside the red circles, the operation sequence number and the name of the operations are written.
Figure: Sewing Process flow for a T-…

How to Review or Study Reference Garment Sample?

In garment export orders, most of the time buyers send reference sample to the supplier with technical specifications and note on critical points. It is to help supplier for preparing correct material requirement, understanding buyer quality requirements and to make proper production planning.

How to change defective or damaged garment parts intelligently?

“Part changing” is not an intended process in garment manufacturing but this process is there because there is certain reasons where we can’t control the cause of fabric damages in the garments completely. However, where possible, we have to minimize short shipment and improve our sales. Part changing is generally done in finishing stages. Most of the fabric defects that are not acceptable in garments are removed during cutting and stitching processes. Still damaged part is found in the sewn garment due to heavy washing, dyeing or other reasons.

How to Calculate and Check Stitching Machine SPI?

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The abbreviation of SPI is Stitches per inch. In the Metric System it is expressed as Stitch per centimeter (SPC). In this post I will show you how to find SPI of the stitching machine or a seam.

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