Basic Textile Testing Parameters

To verify the material specifications, the firm uses product testing (textiles, garments) to determine the minimum specification for compliance with specifications. Specifications often include the test methods and procedures used to verify the performance criteria. Following are the basic testing parameters for apparel products.

1. Fabric Construction:

Fabric construction means the weave used to make the fabric. Under this parameter density of the ends and picks are measured i.e. Ends per inch (EPI) and Picks per inch (PPI). Also testing is done for warp and weft yarn count. Construction is essential because fabric GSM depends on the weave types and yarn count. Other properties like surface smoothness, stiffness, tearing strength, surface texture and hand feel depend on the fabric weave.

Also See: How to find fabric EPI and PPI?

2. Dimensional stability:

Many times it is found the dimension of the fabric (garment) get changed after washing or other wet processing. It happens due to shrinkage. If the fabric does not stable enough after wet processing, garment form may be distorted, twisted or shorten in length and width. So, to get a specific size garment and required fit to the consumer dimensional stability test is being carried out.

Also see: How to calculate fabric shrinkage percentage

3. Color Fastness:

Colourfastness means how much color can resist changing of brightness and depth to some from outside factors. Mostly, color fastness is tested for croaking, laundering, light, and perspiration.

Color fastness to rubbing –The color resistance against rubbing is determined. Croaking test is done in wet condition and dry condition. For example, rubbing fastness of the indigo (VAT) dyes is very low.
Color fastness to laundering: When dye fixation to fabric is not done properly, color of dyes easily comes out in washing and garments are faded out. This may also stain other clothing if washed together. This fastness test will confirm the color resistance to washing.

Color fastness to light: Light is one of the main causes of color fading of garments. Generally, after washing clothes are being dried under the sunlight. When we walk in daylight wearing a colored garment, it comes directly under the sunlight. Garments that have low color fastness to light will fade out slowly.

4. Flammability Test:

Flammability test is not done for all types of garments. Only for few product categories, this test is conducted. Garments like kids wear, sleep wear, cook wear and suits for a fire fighter. These products are treated to improve resistance to fire. So, to confirm that the possibility of catching fire to garments in accident flammability test is essential.

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