What is Fabric Count and Construction?

Fabric count and construction

Count and Construction: 

When we need to explain the quality of a woven fabric, we refer to the fabric count and construction. Here, count refers to the yarn count (warp yarn count and weft yarn count) and by construction primarily it means the number of warp yarns and weft yarns used in one inch of fabric. 

The yarn count (number) is defined as the thickness and fineness of the yarns. The definition of count is shown below. Fabric construction is defined as the warp and weft yarn density in a fabric sheet. The construction of the fabric is presented as EPI and PPI.

Cotton count: Count is defined as the number of 840 yards length of yarns in one pound. It means that the number of yarns of 840 yards length required weighing one pound. The higher the count, the finer the yarn is. a 40's count yarn is finer than a 30's count yarn. 

How to represent fabric construction? 

Fabric count and construction are written with numbers as follows:

Warp count x Weft count / EPI x PPI

30 x 30 / 76 x 68

Here warp and weft yarn counts are 30’s Cotton Count,

End per inch (EPI) = 76 and
Picks per inch (PPI) =68

Another example of fabric count and construction

40 x 40 /120 x 60

Here warp and weft yarn counts are 40’s Cotton Count,

End per inch (EPI) = 120 and
Picks per inch (PPI) =60

As per some sources, Fabric construction includes few more fabric quality parameters other than End per inch and pick per inch. Like,

- Fabric GSM
- Fabric width
- Type of weave used in the fabric

Fabric count and construction formula

There is no such formula for fabric count and construction. Instead, fabrics are weaved using stands count and construction. You can see a list of fabric constructions used in common cotton fabrics on Priyank's blog - Count, Construction, and Width of common Cotton Fabrics.

Fabric count and construction are used in calculating fabric GSM from its construction. To learn more read the method and formula read this post.


I want to include one question here asked an OCS reader.

Question: I want to learn fabric construction numbers. Can you please explain how can we check it?

I have already posted a couple articles on fabric construction. You can get more information by reading those exciting articles. Read these articles to learn about fabric construction.

1. Meaning of fabric construction
2. How to read fabric construction?
3. Measuring fabric EPI and PPI of a woven fabric
4. What is Warp (Ends) and Weft (Pick)?

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