|Progressive Bundle System (Assembly line)|
Production systems are named according to the various factors, like- number of machine are used to make a garment, machines layout, total number of operators or tailors involved to sew a complete garment and number of pieces moving in a line during making a garment. As the fashion industry evolved and demand of ready made garments are increased, the need of mass production systems become the essential way to meet the market demand. Simply because tailoring shops are not able produce the volume and supply across the world.
Mostly used production systems are as following.
Make Through System
When a tailor alone makes a complete garment, then it is called as make though systems. The tailor even makes pattern (use ready-made pattern), cuts fabric and does finishing of the garment. For example, tailors in the tailor shops do all jobs from cut to pack. In this system tailors are not depended to others.
Progressive Bundle System
In Progressive bundle system, each operator does different operations of a garment. All sewing machines needed to make the garment are laid in a line. Cut parts are fed in a bundle form. When an operator receives a bundle of cut components, she opens the bundle and does her operation (job) for all pieces of the bundle. After completing her job she moves the bundle to the next operator who is doing next operation. Numbers of people are involved in sewing a single garment. Major benefits of this system are – as operators do only single or limited operation, their performances increases. Secondly, product consistency can be maintained garment to garment. Most of the export oriented garment manufacturers adopted progressive bundle system as a main production system.
Section Production System
This system is similar to the progressive bundle system. But the difference is that, instead of one line, work is divided into sections. Machines of similar operations are clubbed together instead of spreading over in all lines. For example, when a man’s formal shirt is being made in a section layout – collars, cuffs and sleeves are in the preparatory sections and then send to the assembly section. This system is popular to improve line balancing and utilization of human resources.
Modular Production System
In ‘Modular production system’ sewing operators work as a team. Neither they sew complete garment nor do they sew only single operation. Multi skilled operators form a group and each of the team members do multiple operations. In modular system, operators help each other to finish the garment quickly and team is fully responsible for quality and production. In modular, always team performance is measured instead of individual operator performance. This system is very successful where quick response is needed.
One Piece Flow System
Instead of making a bundle of multiple pieces, bundle is made with all components of a single piece. Sewing machines in One-piece-flow system can be laid in a straight line or modular line. Main difference is that, operator will receive one piece from back and move one piece to his next operator after completing his work. Benefits of One-piece-Flow system are less through put time, Less WIP in the line.
Overhead Production System (UPS -Unit Production system)
in overhead production system, garment components are clamped in a hanger and the hanger moves on an overhead rail. In the hanger components of a single piece is clapped. So this is also one kind of single-piece-flow system.
Piece Rate Production System
Piece rate system also one of the most popular production system in small and unorganized factories. Though people called it piece rate system, actually it is not a production system. Whatever Production system is used as mentioned above, when operators are paid according their works (how many pieces produced), is named as piece rate system.