Trouser Manufacturing Process – The Way Mass Production is Done

You know what a pair of trousers are. What we see are readymade trousers in shops. We see men wear it. Did you ever saw how these trousers are made in factories? What are the processes used by manufacturers to make a trouser? 

I have visited a few trouser manufacturing factories. Let’s do a virtual tour and see the trouser manufacturing process followed in mass trouser manufacturing in a garment factory.

Trouser making process

 The process of trouser manufacturing when done by a full-package manufacturer involved the following processes.

They follow these steps to manufacture trousers (listed in the sequence of occurrence) -
  1. Pre-production processes
  2. Selection of fabric and trims as per the buyer specification
  3. Procurement of fabric, trims, and accessories
  4. Storage of fabric and trims in warehouse
  5. Quality checking of fabric and trims
  6. Pattern development (Done in the sampling stage)
  7. Marker planning, fabric spreading, and cutting
  8. Ticketing and bundling of cut components
  9. Trouser stitching process
  10. Quality checking of stitched trousers
  11. Washing
  12. Finishing
  13. Folding and Packaging
  14. Final Inspection and quality audit
  15. Delivery of shipment

Related post: Garment manufacturing process flow chart

1. Pre-Production Process

Before starting bulk material sourcing and bulk cutting, pre-production processes are involved. Like trouser sample development and sample approval. Size set samples and PP samples are developed. A trouser manufacturer can start bulk cutting after getting approval on the PP sample.

Pre-production meeting and production planning are done.

Industrial engineering department prepares an operation bulletin of the trouser and prepares line layout.

2. Selection of fabrics, trims as per the buyer

Depending on the product detailing and product specification, factory selects fabrics. These activities are performed by the merchandising team. You have many options for fabrics - cotton, viscose, polyester-cotton, wool, linen fabrics.

In a formal trouser, you need these trims - buttons, sewing thread, lining, zipper, labels. 

3. Procurement of fabric, trims, and accessories

Factory prepares a bill of material according to the material consumption and order volume. The sourcing team involved in sourcing of fabrics and other items. 

4. Storage of fabric and trims in warehouse

After the procurement of raw material, all raw materials are to be kept in a proper place that is in a storage-area/warehouse with ambient temperature, humidity required for the fabrics, and other raw materials. 

5. Quality checking of fabric and trims

The fabric inspection is done by laying it on the inspection table against the light. Fabric inspection and approval of fabric are done before cutting process so that unevenness in colour/shade or any other faults if any visible in the fabric are eliminated. The same level of checking is to be followed for trims and accessories.

If needed shade band and fabric grouping are prepared for different fabric lots. Cutting of different shades is done in different lays. 

For fabric approval, for some orders fabric sample is sent to a testing lab for verifying physical and chemical properties of the fabric. Fabric must pass the quality checking and lab testing.

6. Pattern making and grading

Simultaneously after the approval of the order, pattern master is assigned to make patterns that will go for further marker planning and cutting department for production. Trouser patterns can be made manually or by using a CAD system. After pattern making, grading of the patterns is done for all sizes.

7. Marker planning and cutting

A marker is commonly done by large thin paper that holds all the size of pattern pieces for a specific style of garments. Marker is the perfect way to reduce fabric wastage. The marker gives actual guidelines for completing the flawless or correct fabric cutting. Marker making can be done in both ways like manually and computerized methods.

8. Fabric Spreading & Cutting 

Spreading is a preparatory operation for cutting. The main aim of the spreading process is to lay the several fabric plies essential for the production process to the marker length without any tension on the fabric. The lay height depends on order size, fabric characteristic, capacity of the spreader, cutting method and equipment used. The preference of a mode of spreading will influence the cost of spreading as well as finished garment quality.

The cutting is the process of reproduction of shape of pattern pieces in the fabric during the production of garments. Automatic cutting machine is used for cutting fabric layer. Alternatively, you can use straight knife cutting machine. Sometimes a band knife cutting machine is useful for cutting small components.

9. Ticketing and bundling of cut components

Whenever the bundling system is used, it is accompanied by tickets or bundle tickets. It gives fundamental information about the work such as the style number, the size of the garment, the number of garments in the bundle, and the date issued.

After cutting the entire fabric lay, all the garments components in stack form is shorted out as per size and color. To avoid mistakes in sorting, it is better to use code number on each pattern.

10. Trouser stitching process

The next process is the stitching of trousers using sewing machines. Cutting bundles are moved to the sewing floor and loaded to sewing lines as per the loading plan. In a line, sewing machines of different types are arranged as a vertical line to assemble the garments. The sequence of types of sewing machine arrangement depends on the sequence of assembling operations. The number of sewing machine arrangements per line may be up to 60-70 depending on the design and output quantity of trousers.

Normally, a trouser line is set up in sections – preparatory sections, front section, back section, and assembly sections. In the preparatory section small parts are made and the move to the assembly section. once front part and back part of the trouser is ready, sewing operators assemble the trouser.

11. Quality checking of stitched garments

Inline quality checking - Inside the sewing lines, quality checkpoints are kept. Normally, after making each trouser part, stitching quality is checked by a trained quality checker.

All garments are thoroughly and carefully checked to detect/find any defect is present in the garment. The defects may be for example variation of measurement, sewing defect, fabric defects, spots, etc. if the defect is possible to overcome, then the garment is sent to the respective person for correction.

End-of-line quality checking – After the garment assembly, an end-of-line checker checks the whole trouser inside and outside. Check cut the loose and uncut thread tail if found any. She also removes ply number tickets from the trouser.

If the checker found any stitching defect, missing of any operations, defective trousers are given to the operators who made the defect of missed an operation. After correcting the operation, the end-of-line checker recheck the pieces and passed them for the next process.

12.  Washing of trousers

Washing is an important process in trouser manufacturing. For cleaning and adding softness to the trouser. Washing is done using mild detergent. Industrial washing machines are used for trouser washing. After washing, the garments are hydro extracted to remove excess water and after this, these garments are dried in tumbler dryer.

13. Finishing process (pressing and ironing trousers)

In the finishing stage, thread trimming is done. 100 percent of the trousers are checked by the quality checkers. If stains are found on the fabric, stains are removed using spotting workstations. Then individual trousers are pressed by steam presses on a vacuum table to remove wrinkle marks. Pressman follows pressing instruction.

After pressing, visual inspection is done one more time and random measurement checking is done the same checker. Now trousers are ready for folding and packing.

14. Folding and Packing of trousers

After the final inspection, the trousers are folded. Hand tags are attached. As per packing requirement pieces are poly packed. Then trousers are sorted by color-wise, size ratio wise, bundled and packed in the cartoon.

The cartons are marked with important information in printed form which is seen from outside the cartoon easily. The trouser manufacturing process end after packing the trousers.

15. Final audit of packed trousers

Internal inspection is not enough to consider the packed garment for ensuring the quality of the trousers. Buyers send 3rd party quality auditors (for shipment inspection). Packed garments are audited by 3rd party auditors following the AQL standard set by the buyer.

Inspection result can be good or bad. If the order or lot is passed the inspection, the buyer approves the shipment for delivery. In case, quality auditor fails the is inspection, the factory needs to rectify defective garments and offer reinspection to the buyer. 

16. Shipment for delivery:

Finally, the packed cartons containing formal trousers are shipped to the buyer’s address.  

Does this help you to understand the trouser manufacturing process?

If you have any questions and want to know more drop us an email.

Prasanta Sarkar

Prasanta Sarkar is a textile engineer and a postgraduate in fashion technology from NIFT, New Delhi, India. He has authored 6 books in the field of garment manufacturing technology, garment business setup, and industrial engineering. He loves writing how-to guide articles in the fashion industry niche. He has been working in the apparel manufacturing industry since 2006. He has visited garment factories in many countries and implemented process improvement projects in numerous garment units in different continents including Asia, Europe, and South Africa. He is the founder and editor of the Online Clothing Study Blog.

Post a Comment

Previous Post Next Post


Contact Form