Taber Abraser: Test Scope, Instrument Type, and Result Assessment

The Testing principle and test scope of Taber Abraser

Taber abraser (Taber abrasion tester, Taber wear resistance tester), mainly through the way of rotating grinding, select the weight applicable to the standard, use different kinds of friction wheel to rotate on the sample to detect the wear resistance of various materials.

The Taber abraser can be used to test the wear resistance of rigid and flexible materials.
Taber Abraser testing equipment

1. Rigid materials: Alumina protective layer, steel, ceramic protective layer, ceramic glazed paint, coating (paint, glaze paint), concrete floor, electroplating, glass, plastic, wax, wood, plywood and insulating fiberboard (wood-based panels), etc. 

2. Flexible materials: leather, lacquer, paper/board, rubber, fabric, brick (rubber and asphalt) etc.

These materials are widely used in a variety of industries: travel box, carpet, cardboard, clothing, glass, plastic coating, tile, metal coating, paint, varnish, decorative sheet, high-pressure sheet, plastic, textile, elastic floor mat, traffic paint, anodized layer, blanket, electronic parts, decorative board, wax, label, leather case, dental material, car interior decoration, resin, furniture, etc.

Common type of Taber wear-resistant tester

Taber abraser uses rotary roller to carry out the abrasion test, and there are a lot of materials to test, each material has a corresponding grinding wheel model. Grinding wheel has H series, S series, CS series, some other tests need to be used with sand note, sticker.
Grinding wheels

Each grinding wheel has different softness and hardness. The commonly used grinding wheel types are listed in the following table:
Table: Different types of grinding wheels

Grinding wheel
material quality
characteristics / types / composition
softness / rubber and grinding
gentle / elastic / rubber, abrasives
softness / rubber and grinding
very gentle / elastic / rubber, abrasives
softness / rubber and grinding
rough / elastic /rubber, abrasives
hardness / glassy material
rough / inelastic / ceramics
hardness / glassy material
moderately rough / inelastic / ceramics
hardness / glassy material
very rough / inelastic / ceramics
hardness / glassy material
very detailed / elastic / ceramics
CS0, S32
softness / smooth rubber
very gentle / elastic / no abrasive rubber
S42, S33
softness / sandpaper belt
moderate / elastic / sandpaper strip
softness / wool felt
no wear / elastic / wool felt
hardness / WC-Co
cutting / inelastic / WC-Co
--- / leather
Grit-Feeder leather

Assessment method of Taber wear Resistance test results

After reaching the predetermined number of circles, the instrument stops automatically; alternatively, according to the requirements of different standards, it is determined that the test shall be stopped manually at the end of the test, close the vacuum cleaner, take out the sample and evaluate it.

Two Changes, Three Ways 

1 Intuitive change: gloss loss, surface change, color change, the first crack line appears, the first hole appears.

2 Physical changes: thickness, air permeability, weight, strength (tension or peeling).

Mass loss method: use a balance accurate to 0.1mg to weigh the sample before and after the test separately, calculate the weight loss ratio.

Strength loss method: using a strength meter to test the strength of the sample before and after the test, calculate the percentage of strength loss.

Appearance change with a predetermined number of circles: evaluate the appearance change after reaching the predetermined number of circles, usually manifested as whether to wear through, light transmissivity change, etc.

Different Factors Affecting Wear Resistance

Different materials have different wear resistance, the main factors affecting the wear resistance of different materials are as follows.

1. Hardness: In general, the wear resistance of metal materials can be measured by the hardness of the materials. Materials with high hardness, cutting produced small size of debris, small wear, high wear resistance. However, due to the difference of composition and structure of the material, the material tissue may not be suitable for a particular wear condition, so the hardness cannot be a complete basis for comparing the wear resistance of the material.

2. Crystal structure and crystal inter-soluble: A pair of metal friction pairs with poor mutual solubility in metallurgy can obtain lower friction factor and wear rate. If the material is an intermetallic compound, the wear resistance of the friction pair surface is better. For example, cobalt, even if the friction surface is very clean, the friction factor is still 0.2-0.4, and the wear rate is low, which can be used as an important component of wear-resistant alloy with high hardness.

3. Temperature: Temperature mainly affects the wear resistance of metal materials through the influence of hardness, crystal structure transformation, mutual solubility and increasing oxidation rate. The hardness of metals usually decreases with the increase of temperature, so the temperature increases, the wear rate increases. Some friction parts (such as high-temperature bearings, cutting tools) require high-hardness materials.

4. Plasticity and toughness: The high plasticity and toughness indicate that the material can absorb a large amount of energy, the cracks are not easy to form and expand, and the material has the ability to withstand repeated deformation, so it is not easy to form fatigue stripping, that is, the wear resistance is good. Different plasticity and toughness, its essence is different microstructure, which leads to different wear resistance. But if the microstructure of the wear-resistant material is the same, the wear resistance can be measured by the hardness.

5. Strength: During the wear process, the metal matrix has high strength, which can provide good support against the hard phase of grinding, give full play to the ability of anti-wear hard phase to resist wear, and make the wear-resistant material show excellent wear resistance. Under the same hardness, the high strength wear-resistant material has better wear resistance.

6. Metallurgical defects such as inclusions: Metallurgical defects such as nonplastic inclusions in steel have a serious effect on fatigue wear performance. For example, the particles with edges such as nitrides, oxides, silicates in steel, during the stress process, the deformation cannot coordinate with the matrix to form voids, which form a stress concentration source, appear the crack and grow, and finally cause the appearance of fatigue wear.

7. Surface roughness: Under certain conditions of contact stress, the smaller value the surface roughness, the higher the fatigue wear resistance. When the surface roughness value is small to a certain value, the influence of anti-fatigue wearability will be reduced. If the contact stress is too large, the fatigue wear resistance is not high no matter how small the surface roughness value is.

Related post: How to measure colourfastness to rubbing?

This article is contributed by Testext Instrument Ltd. team. 

Prasanta Sarkar

Prasanta Sarkar is a textile engineer and a postgraduate in fashion technology from NIFT, New Delhi, India. He has authored 6 books in the field of garment manufacturing technology, garment business setup, and industrial engineering. He loves writing how-to guide articles in the fashion industry niche. He has been working in the apparel manufacturing industry since 2006. He has visited garment factories in many countries and implemented process improvement projects in numerous garment units in different continents including Asia, Europe, and South Africa. He is the founder and editor of the Online Clothing Study Blog.

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