Different Types of Fabric Cutting Machines Used in Garment Production

Cutting is one of the processes in garment manufacturing. In bulk garment manufacturing, multiple fabric layers are cut at a time by means of cutting machines. Different types of cutting machines and equipment are available for cutting fabrics and machines are used as per requirement and production volume. Semi-automatic and automatic improves cutting room productivity and improves cutting accuracy.

Different Types of cutting Machines

Cutting machine and equipment can be categorized as following
  1. Manual cutting
  2. Semi-automatic cutting machine
  3. Fully automatic cutting machine

1. Manual cutting

Hand scissors are used for cutting fabric plies manually. Hand scissors are not machines but very useful cutting equipment. Factories may have semi-automatic and fully automatic machines for fabric cutting, but can’t avoid use of hand scissors in cutting section. Scissors are common tool in cutting process and hand scissors ha many use in cutting room.

2. Semi-automatic cutting machines

Straight Knife cutting machine:The straight knife is a common means of cutting lays in conventional cutting rooms because it is versatile, portable, cheaper than a band knife, more accurate on curves than a round knife and relatively reliable and easy to maintain. Even if a band knife is used for the main cutting operation, a straight knife would be used to separate the lay into sections for easier handling.
Straight knife cutting machine (Image source: Youtube/Rexel poland)

Band Knife cutting machine:
Band knives are used when a higher standard of cutting accuracy is required than can be obtained with a straight knife. Pieces to be cut are first cut on a block, and then cut exactly on a band knife.
Band knife cutting machine (image source: Indiamart.com)

Round knife cutting machine: 
A round knife is used only for straight lines or lower no of lays of relatively few plies.
Round knife cutting machine (image source: Indiamart.com)

Die cutting machine: 
This machine is useful where small motifs with particular shape and pattern and accuracy in cutting are needed.
Die cutting machine

3. Automatic cutting machines

There are different types of automatic fabric cutting machines. Here majorly used cutting machines in the garment industry are shown.

Computerized cutting machine:
Computerized cutting machines are used where high volume of garments is manufactured. This machine cuts fabric layers as per command given in computer system. Automatic cutting machine is also known as CNC machine. In the automatic cutting room, fabrics are spread on the table by auto spreader and the lay is positioned in the cutting table prior to automatic cutting. Many videos are available on the Youtube for automatic cutting machines.
Computerized cutting machine 

Rib cutting machine:
Narrow fabric tape of rib is cut from knits fabric. Ribs are used in t-shirts neck finishing or piping operations and many other knits apparel manufacturing
Rib cutting machine

Laser cutting machine
Instead on blade fabric layer is cut by laser rays. Laser cutting machine is also computer controlled machine.
Laser cutting machine

Also see: Cutting Room Machines and Equipment.

Image source: Cutting machine images shown in this post are taken from Youtube and various others websites.

Prasanta Sarkar

Prasanta Sarkar is a textile engineer and a postgraduate in fashion technology from NIFT, New Delhi, India. He has authored 6 books in the field of garment manufacturing technology, garment business setup, and industrial engineering. He loves writing how-to guide articles in the fashion industry niche. He has been working in the apparel manufacturing industry since 2006. He has visited garment factories in many countries and implemented process improvement projects in numerous garment units in different continents including Asia, Europe, and South Africa. He is the founder and editor of the Online Clothing Study Blog.

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