Difference Between Basic Time and Standard Time

Basic Time and Standard Time are used by Work-study officers and Industrial Engineers for work measurement. Observed Time or Cycle Time are two other terms used in time measurement. To differentiate above terminologies, definition and explanation are given below.

Cycle Time:

Cycle time is defined as the time duration from the starting point of a job to the starting point of the next job. This time is established from the observation data of an operator while working at a certain pace.

Example: In a sewing operation, pick up the first piece to pick up of second pieces is cycle time. In cycle time, material handling time is included with actual work time in a machine.

Cycle time = Machine Time + Material handling time.
Cycle time is also known as Observed Time.

Basic Time:

Basic time of a job is determined by multiplying rating factor to the observed time (cycle time). Basic time is also expressed as Normal time.

Basic time = (Observed time X Performance Rating)/100
Or 
Basic Time = (Standard Time - Allowances)

In Basic Time no allowances are included.

Standard Time:

Standard time is the time allowed to an operator to carry out the specified task under the specified condition and defined level of performance. This is a standard definition for standard time.
Some additional time is added to the basic time to arrive standard time of a task. In practice, none can work throughout the day without taking rest. Operators need time for relaxation from fatigue. Various allowances are relaxation allowance, contingency allowance (like machine breakdown) and bundle allowance (for PBS system).

Standard Time = Basic Time + Allowances

The basic constituents of standard time are shown in the following chart. This chart shows how standard time is made up of the observed time and basic time of a job. (Click on the image to enlarge)

Basic Time and Standard Time
Chart: This shows how standard time is made up

Conclusion: For a specific task following conclusion can be drawn
  • Observed Time may be greater or lower than Basic Time.
  • Basic Time is always lower than Standard Time
  • To set Standard Time of a job you must add allowances to Basic Time (normal time) 
Read related post: Performance rating

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