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Showing posts from December, 2015

What is Counter Sample in Garment Sampling?

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Counter sample can be defined as the reference sample of the original and signed sample. The counter sample is made the same way as the original sample is made and sent to the buyer.

Garment factories make samples for buyer's approval on various things - like garment fit, garment spec and detailing, print and embroidery work, bulk fabrics, bulk trims.


You know factory develops garment samples at various stages for specific purpose. In each stage factory need to send number of garment samples as asked by the buyer (as required by buyer). The factory makes a few additional samples (at least one additional sample).  The additional sample is made as to the sample sent to the buyer. This is called a counter sample or reference sample.

Especially the pre-production sample (PP Sample) is a very important one to factory merchandising team, quality team and production team. At some point, every department needs to refer to the PP sample. But the factory gets only one approved PP sample th…

What is Selvedge in Fabrics?

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Selvedge is the edges of both sides of the fabric along the fabric length. While you will be handling fabrics in the garment and textile industry, the selvedge is a common technical term you should know.
A selvage (US English) or selvedge (British English) is a self-finished edge of the fabric (Wikipedia definition).

In a woven fabric roll, selvedges are clearly visible. Normally selvedges are thicker and stronger than the other part of the fabric. In the selvedge warp yarns are placed closer and construction is more dense compared the other part of the fabric. Purpose of selvedge is to secure the fabric from fraying out the warp yarns from fabric. In the above image and the following image selvedge is shown by arrow mark at the self-finished edges.  
Following the selvedges, garment makers identify the fabric grains, or warp direction. While in a cut pieces where selvedges are taken out from the fabric, it is quite difficult to identify the warp direction. In such case you may need …

Key KPIs in Management Information System (MIS)

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by Diptimayee Pradhan
Management Information System is a key tool for the decision makers to take decisions effectively. In this article author has discussed about the Key Performance indicators (KPIs) commonly used in monitoring the performance of a apparel manufacturing facility.

How to Calculate Machine Downtime?

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A machine mechanic from Sri Lanka asked this question on machine downtime calculation.

Question: I’m intrigued to know how you would determine the figure for Machine downtime in a factory. And if there is any standard formula you would suggest? In my experience, I will measure a mechanic’s performance on the physical time he or she takes to complete successful intervention on the line as opposed to the combined SAH lost while the mechanic is on the machine…. What is your opinion on this? What is machine downtime? Machine downtime is defined as the time when a machine doesn't perform due to breakdown or it is out of order. When a machine is down you could not be producing anything. That is why it is considered a lost time or loss of standard time.

If you are looking for a formula for calculating the machine downtime, I don't know if such formula exists.

Pointing to your first explanation - the mechanic may reach to the machine later than the actual machine breakdown happened. So…

What is the Difference between Piece Dyed Fabric and Yarn Dyed Fabric?

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The colorful cloth pieces and apparels you see in a fabric store or the colored clothes you have in your wardrobe are dyed at certain stage of textile manufacturing - either in fibre stage or yarn stage or in fabric stage.

Research Ideas (Project Topics) in Apparel and Fashion Industry for College Students

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Like every year, this year too I have received many queries from students for suggesting them a good and innovative research topic for their graduation project on apparel and fashion industry. Some of them sent project options and asked me which one would be the best. As I have written it before, every student want to do an innovative research work but at the same time they want a good grade in the final jury (project assessment).

The Fabric Dyeing Process – An Introduction for Beginners

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This article is contributed by Arnab Sen.
Dyeing is perhaps the most delicate operation that fabric goes through while being manufactured. It involves the treatment of the fabrics with certain chemicals, some of which are dyes and some other accessories to help in the process. One should thus be very sure about the roles played by each component of these chemicals, since controlling their amount or contact time can bring about certain changes to the effect of dyeing on the fabrics.


The control is very much desired in order to ensure the right kind of colour in terms of depth and tone is achieved onto the fabric as per the specification provided by the client. Besides achieving the correct colour, certain other factors also remain important, like the possible defects that can arise out of fabric dyeing and a reduction on the fabric wasted.
 In order to achieve the best performance in fabric dyeing, one thus has to look at the process as comprised of three major components - Chemicals i…

How to Avoid Oil Staining in Garments at Manufacturing Stage

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We don’t like clothes having stains on it. So our customers would not like it too. In garment manufacturing where garments are stitched oil stains may be often found in garments. Stains are considered one kind of defects in garments, which leaves an unpleasant mark on clothes.


In case such stains found on garments, factories remove stain by spotting or washing prior to packing garments. There is a cost involved in removing the oil stain. It is better to take precaution in material handling throughout the manufacturing process - from fabric receiving to shipping the packed garments to avoid oil staining.

How to avoid such oil stains?
Following are a few best practices that should be followed by garment factories to reduce oil stains in garments.

1. Clean sewing machines 2-3 times daily. Keep the machine and machine table neat and clean by cleaning machine 2-3 times a day. This activity will help you keep your garments free from dust and another kind of defects generations.

2. When ope…

An Overlock Sewing Machine and Its Usage in Apparel Manufacturing

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In mass garment manufacturing, after lock stitch machines, overlock machines are mostly used one among many sewing machine types. Overlock machine also known as serger, over edge sewing machine and interlock sewing machine. An industrial overlocker is primarily used to sew edges of a cloth piece with clean finish.

Garment Technology Expo 2016 - A Must Visit Event for Industry Professionals

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Like every year, Garment Technology Expo is organizing an event Garment Technology Expo 2016 on 26 - 29 February 2016. This 4 day event will be held at NSIC Exhibition Complex.

What is Direct-Drive Motor in Sewing Machines?

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The direct-drive motor is a compact servomotor. This servomotor is directly coupled with the main shaft of the sewing machine. In the conventional sewing machines clutch motor is used which is connected to the main shaft with V-belt.


Direct-drive means no external motor is attached to the machine table. The servomotor motor is housed inside the machine and has no mechanisms, such as a V-belt, which transmit vibrations and noise.
Example of direct-drive machine: Juki Industrial Sewing Machine Model DDL-9000B

An image servo motor used in sewing machine.

Why direct-drive motor is preferred in industrial sewing machines?
The direct-drive motor in sewing machine has benefit compared to the conventional clutch motor machines. Some of those are as following

Less power consumption - since the direct-drive motor transfers the motor power to the machine with no energy loss, a significant reduction in power consumption is achieved, offering remarkable economical benefits. The motor runs withou…

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