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Showing posts from March, 2011

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The Current Reality of Production Planning and Control Department in Apparel Industry

Production Planning and Control (PPC) department is one of the most important departments in a manufacturing company. What I have seen during my visit to factories that many of them do not have PPC department. Though, I think there might be someone appointed for the planning work with a different profile name.

In most of the small size factories the owner or director himself or herself does the planning task. It has both positive and negative impact on the lead time, on on-time process completion and job responsibilities of the employees. Many times, delays start in planning stage and work allocation to the respective employees. In this situation employees can’t do anything as because Mr. Director is responsible for the delay in the beginning.

The use of RFID Technology in the Apparel Industry

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RFID technology is not a new thing in the apparel and textile manufacturing industry. It was introduced in the textile industry two decades ago (1980s). In apparel retail sector RFID is widely used by big retailers for tracking sales stock and real time information. But till date very few apparel manufacturers are using RFID system in the production line in India.The main purpose of using RFID technology is real time data capturing so that data based decision can be made quickly. It is not only gives production data, it gives information about employees attendance, machine break down, product quality information and very important information about the location where is a particular work pieces at a certain time.

What are Defect and Defective Pieces and How these are measured?

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The parameter that decides whether a garment is a quality garment or not is called a Defect. When a number of defects in a garment is high it seemed as worse quality garment and when defects are less then it is a better quality garment. Definition of the defect and defective pieces has been explained below.

Defects Defects are all those non-conformance that is not acceptable by the end customer. Like the imbalanced shape of the garment, broken button or other trims, holes in fabrics, slip stitch, broken seam etc. In a defective garment, there may be more than one defect.

Defective Pieces Defective pieces are those pieces, which are separated for alteration during checking may be for any causes.

For the quantitative measure, there are two measuring units as Defects per hundred units and percentage defective.

Defects per hundred units (DHU) – number of total defects in 100 checked garments. The formula for calculating DHU is
DHU = Total no. of defects found X 100 / Total pieces checked
Per…

How to Calculate Fabric Consumption of a Garment?

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Like other business, garment factory is set for profit generation. Profit can be improved by saving from each cost factors of garment making. The fabric is most important constitute of a garment and it represents around 60-70% of total product manufacturing cost. Fabric cost of a product depends on how much fabric is consumed to make the garment including cut wastes and end bits. So fabric consumption must be calculated accurately. 

Most of the Indian apparel factories fabric consumption is made by pattern masters. Rest of the employees do not bother how it is done. If you have a product technical sheet then you can calculate the exact fabric consumption of a garment. Average fabric consumption also depends on nature of the fabric, like tubular or open width fabric. Whether the fabric is solid colored, check or stripe or any specific design repeat required. In the following, one example has been shown with a formula for better clarification about the calculation.

Basic formula: To est…

Use of Takt Time in Apparel Industry

What is Takt Time? Takt time is the allowable times to produce one product at the rate of customers’ demand. This is NOT the same as cycle time, which is the normal time to complete an operation on a product (which should be less than or equal to TAKT time).
Takt time is the calculated pace of production based on the average speed at which the customer is buying a product or service. The formula is net available time to produce per time period divided by customer demand per time period. For example when,
Net available time = 4500 minutes per shift (10 operators total man-minutes)
             Customer demand = 500 pieces per shift
             Takt time = (4500÷500) = 9 minutes per piece

Important things to be noted that,
Takt time can’t be measured with a stopwatch.
Takt time is not the time it takes to perform a task.
Takt time is only reduced or increased by changes in the production demand or net available time to work.
How Takt is used to in Garment Production? As the definition s…

Incentive Systems for Garment Industry

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In manufacturing industries, an incentive is a factor (financial or non-financial) that enables or/and motivates a particular course of action or counts as a reason for preferring one choice to the alternatives. Eventually, incentives' aim is providing value for money and contributing to organizational success. 

It is considered as a driving force that produces higher productivity with the same resources available. Incentives can be classified according to the different ways in which they motivate agents to take a particular course of action. One common and useful taxonomy divide incentives into three broad classes:


1. Remunerative incentives or financial incentives are said to exist where a worker can expect some form of material reward, especially money, in exchange for acting in a particular way.

2. Moral incentives are said to exist where a particular choice is widely regarded as the right thing to do, or as particularly admirable, or where the failure to act in a certain way is …

How to Choose Right Method for Garment Printing?

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Being a designer you may have multiple options to decide which printing techniques are most suitable for a specific design on the garment. Experienced designers choose printing method primarily on the basis final outcome as design sharpness, durability, brightness, texture and hand feel. A similar outcome can be obtained in multiple ways. In the sampling stage, printing cost might not be considered and designers get done sample printing with the most convenient option. But as a designer, you must consider which option will be most suitable for bulk production in terms cost of printing and production time.

As when a design comes for production, we need to consider many things to choose a particular printing method. Each printing method has advantages as well as disadvantages. So it is up to you which one to finalize as you are handling bulk printing. But the important thing is the final print outcome. When a contract is signed with the buyer for a particular look you can't alter it…

How to Improve Organizational Skills?

Organizational Skills
In our daily life, it seems time is too short to complete the given tasks. It does not matter what position you are holding in the organisation, if you are not organized at end of the day you will find lot of tasks uncompleted. It is only you, who can change your current situation. You can have better control of work, better productivity; you can do more and improve the quality of your life. What is required is you have to sharp up your organisation skills.

How to do Time Study for Garment Operations?

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Definition of Time Study Time study is a method of measuring work for recording the times of performing a certain specific task or its elements carried out under specified conditions. An operator does the same operation (task) throughout the day. Time study helps to define how much time is necessary for an operator to carry out the task at a defined rate of performance.
Time Study Tools  To do time study you need to arrange the following tools
A stopwatchTime study formatOne pen or pencilTime Study boardHow to Conduct Time Study? An operation cycle consists of material handling, positioning and aligning parts, sewing garment parts, trimming threads and tying and untying a bundle. So in the time study format, divide whole task into various elements according to the motion sequences of the operation. For example, in operation ‘collar run stitch’, task elements may be
i) pick up panel to sew first seam,
ii) turn collar to sew second seam,
iii) turn collar to sew third seam
iv) check work an…

What is Green Index for Clothing?

What is Green Index?
The term “Green index” is a numerical indicator of the measures of various parameters that have an impact on the environment. It indicates one’s (organization, business or product) responsibility to the Earth, to Its entire creatures and to the human beings. It aims to promote sustainability. Generally, it is represented on 1-10 scales or in percentage.

For example, shoe manufacturer Timberland measure their product’s Green Index on the basis of three main parameters as Climate Impact, Chemicals Used and Resources Consumption. Combining all three they give Overall Green Index Rating to their products. They attach the Green Index tag with each pair of shoes. As customers become environmentally conscious they want to know if the material is safe for them and its overall impact on the environment. This Green Index tag helps customers to judge better about product sustainability.

Sustainable product index is a similar index used for the same purpose. A couple of year…

Sampling Stages in Apparel Manufacturing

Garment samples are categorized as development samples and production samples. Samples that are made in the development stage are as follows -
Proto Sample FIT sample Salesman Sample/Photo shot Sample Size set Sample Pre-production Sample  In the production stage, the factory needs to submit a few more samples that include
Top of Production Sample Shipment Sample  1. Proto Sample: These samples are a prototype of a new design created by designers. This is the first sample in product development stage. Proto sample is made to communicate the design of a style or a line or to present garment structure. In proto samples fit and fabric detailing is not been considered.

Related post:14 different types of garment samples
2. FIT Sample: Once the proto sample is approved, FIT sample is being made with the actual measurement. Modification of the pattern is done to get the desired fit of the garment. FIT is one of the most important factors to be considered during sample development. A Fit sampl…

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